|Reference : Sur la floculation des milieux troubles|
|Scientific journals : Article|
|Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences : Physics|
|Sur la floculation des milieux troubles|
|[en] Flocculation of Turbid Media|
|Spring, Walthère [Université de Liège - ULg]|
|Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique|
|Académie Royale de Belgique|
|[en] Colloids ; Flocculation ; Turbid media|
|[fr] Colloïdes ; Floculation ; Milieux troubles|
|[en] Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belgique. (1899), 37, 790-815; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010).
In this very interesting stand the author gives comprehensive preparation of the philosophy, which led it with its numerous individual investigations, and over the results of these test series. It is possible to seemed that the sedimentary rocks formed, because the apparent is not plastic and weldable bodies accept this characteristics have under pressure. Indeed it showed up with many materials, in particular metals that with pressure alone, without heating up from the powder a connected block develops. This characteristics are proportional with different metals of their weld ability. In addition, with the baud a pressure of 10000 atmospheres is sufficient not yet, in order to cause a cementing. Since a layer height of 50000 m corresponds to this pressure, it is impossible that the sandstones formed alone with pressure. With the metals cementing is based on the ability show also in firm solution and diffusion features. Metals is dissolve mutually it can be combined also in the firm like copper with tin and copper with zinc. On the other hand it does not let itself weld together with zinc with pressure, mix also in the melted lead and zinc (perfectly). The more firmly, the less volatile and a material is less fusible, all the lets is with pressure weld together itself. It shows up with diamond, corundum, quartz and other materials. Without pressure, only by bare laying of smooth surfaces on top of each other such metals, are with each other mixable, can be combined at higher temperature. Two pieces applies mainly for the same metal; with platinum, gold and copper, with the temperature test of 1600 and 1800° the lower melting point was appropriate, just like with such, with those the melting point only for 200° is higher than the test temperature. Also copper and zinc chop lower these conditions together, as a layer brass form 1/4 mm of thickness, also during zinc and lead, zinc and bismuth do not unite. The fact that the solid materials of lower pressure in each other diffuses the results also from the experiments with barium carbonate and sodium sulfate and Barium sulfate and sodium carbonate which from both sides without presence of a solvent with lower pressure became the same equilibrium reached. Chemical reactions in the firm capability of the lower pressure however only then take place, when the volume are not increased. Where by the reaction with Volume decrease is caused, the reaction lower pressure can occur as with mixtures of silver with sulfur with large mobility of the molecules; it does not have to occur however, if the mobility is missing, which with mixtures of zinc and sulfur the case is, although the formation will take place from sulfur zinc also with lower contraction. With agreement a volume distinction occurs, with pressure the coalescence be never caused. with pressure a cleavage is on the contrary often caused with the hydrate of the sulfur arsenic and with the calcium copper acetate. Also transformations of a modification into another, of prism sulfur in octahedral, of graphite in diamond are caused with pressure, and thereby a decreasing of volume occurs. The experiments over the influence of the pressure on firm body did not offer the possibility, the formation of the sedimentary rocks of interpreting in particular the sandstones and conglomerates because quartz does not become plastic and weldable. If however water present with pressure and the formation of a liquid solution is often favored, which works then cementing. In the sandstones and conglomerates consists the binder of amorphously aqueous silicic acid. The author knows by the behavior of these, in particular the younger rocks against caustic potash solution after, by which the amorphous silicic acid is not the quartz grains are dissolved, so that the rock disintegrated. A solution of silicic acid in water can develop with pressure. If one soaks the volume with a colloidal solution of silicic acid, then occurs no caking, because with the drying up, the amorphous silicic acid contracts itself and view the surfaces which can be cemented replaces. One must press evenly as when gluing the wood into pieces together which can be cemented loosely, so that it shrinks with the drying up in the measure like the binder, advances and the relief of that to prevent cementing surfaces. That is caused with the formation of the sandstones with the low pressure of the lay-over sand masses.
Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.
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