Reference : Über das Vorkommen gewisser für den Flüssigkeits- oder Gaszustand charakteristichen Eige...
Scientific journals : Article
Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences : Chemistry
Über das Vorkommen gewisser für den Flüssigkeits- oder Gaszustand charakteristichen Eigenschaften bei festen Metallen
[en] Fluidity of Metals at Temperature below their Melting Points
Spring, Walthère [Université de Liège - ULg]
Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie
Wilheilm Engelmann
[en] Metals, properties ; Temperature
[fr] Propriétés des métaux ; Température
[en] Spring, W. Zeitschrift fuer Physikalische Chemie, Stoechiometrie und Verwandtschaftslehre (1894), 15, 65-78; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); (accessed July 8, 2010).

Many metals, when heated to temperatures considerably below their melting points, exhibit properties characteristic of the liquid state. For examination in this respect, the metals were turned into cylinders with ends as perfectly plane as possible, and placed end to end in an iron holder, pressure being applied by a screw. They were heated in this condition in a hot air bath, filled, if necessary, with an indifferent gas. Cylinders of aluminium, bismuth, cadmium, copper, tin, gold, lead, zinc, antimony, and platinum were employed, and in the first experiment two cylinders of the same metal were used. The temperature was kept for from 4 to 8 hours at from 200° to 400°, and it was found that, except in the case of antimony and platinum, the cylinders had alloyed so perfectly that they could be turned with one end fixed in a lathe, whilst if broken in a vice the fracture did not take place along the original surface of separation. Pairs of different metals were next employed, usually copper or lead with some of the other metals, with the result that, at the junction, an alloy of considerable thickness was formed, 18 mm. in the case of zinc and copper, and 15 mm. in the case of cadmium and copper. In the case of lead and tin, a cavity in the end of one metal was filled with mica, so that contact only took place at the edge. An alloy was formed to the thickness of 15 mm., of which 9 mm. were in the tin and 6 mm. in the lead. By the use of cylinders of copper and zinc, in which, owing to a central cavity, contact only took place at the edges, it was found that the surface of the copper above the cavity was coloured by a yellow alloy resembling that formed when copper is subjected to the action of zinc vapour, and which was not due to diffusion from the edges (see also Abstracts, 1893, ii, 168). For the explanation of these results, which are most marked with soft and non-crystalline metals, the author points out the assumption suffices, that the molecules of solids, like those of fluids, do not all move with the same velocity.

Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.
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