|Reference : Control of pneumonia in calves|
|Scientific congresses and symposiums : Paper published in a book|
|Life sciences : Veterinary medicine & animal health|
|Control of pneumonia in calves|
|Lekeux, Pierre [Université de Liège - ULg > Faculté de Médecine vétérinaire > > >]|
|First National Congress of Buiatrics|
|22 octobre au 22 octobre 1999|
|Ankara University, veterinary faculty, Dispakapi, Ankara|
|[en] pneumonia ; calves|
|[en] Respiratory disease is the principal cause of loss of young cattle worldwide. The syndrome arises from a number of factors, including Chose involving the animal, e.g., age, general condition and immune statue; ifs environment, e.g., changes in food, temperature and humidity that lead to stress; and the presence of infections agents, e.g., bacteria, viruses and mycoplasmas. The syndrome, in a method preferred by the author, can be classified into four grades: Grade 1, subclinical disease;Grade 2, compensated clinical disease (at this stage, the inflammatriry reaction generated tends to lirait the impact of the disease on thi animal); Grade 3, noncompensated clinical disease (at this stage, the inflamniattxy reaction is excessive and must be controlled); and Grade 4, irrevertibk clinical disease (which threatens the animal's survival).
The increase in frequency and economic impact of bovine respiratory disease complex can be correlated with the escalating industrialisation of cattle production. In intensive operations, commingling of animale from multiple sources, exposure to many organisme, stress and management practicgs are all factors that can lead to disease. -
The predisposition of cattle, especially beef calves, to respiratory problems is related to their lack of functional pulmonary hardiness. Selection of breeds that demonstrate adequate pulmonary function and sufficient ventilatory reserve may help in the control of the bovine respiratory disease complex, but this approach is difficult to implement and slow to produce results. Prophylactic measures, including vaccination programmes and modifying management practices to reduce stress, also have a place in preventing the bovine respiratory disease complex. Unfortunately, these measures are not always easy to put into operation and cannot completely eradicate the problem. Therapeutic strategies to minimise the economic impact of the syndrome include use of appropriate antibacterial therapy, modulation of the pulmonary inflammatory reaction and correction of mechanical disorders.
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