[en] Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to induce endometriosis in female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) for research purposes. Methods: Three female monkeys from 4 to 4.5 years of age underwent three consecutive attempts at endometriosis induction over an 8-month period: (i) the first attempt involved intravaginal sampling of endometrial tissue and transplantation into the intrapelvic cavity; (ii) the second entailed surgical removal of endometrium after hysterotomy and intra-abdominal placement, and (iii) the third used endometrial mucosa obtained by scraping the uterus after hysterectomy, placed in a surgical pouch created in the retrovesical space (Retzius). In each case, the pelvic cavity was closely inspected after 7, 9, and 6 weeks respectively for the presence of endometriotic lesions, and peritoneal biopsies were performed. Results: Neither macroscopic observation nor histological analysis revealed any endometriotic lesions. Conclusion: This failure to induce endometriosis in female rhesus macaques suggests that this species is not the most efficient experimental model among primates to investigate endometriosis development or treatment.