[en] GVHD is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). GVHD is due to donor lymphocytes that are cotransplanted with donor stem cells. These donor lymphocytes are primed by histocompatibility differences between donors and recipients and activated by a cytokine storm caused by the conditioning regimen. The most efficient method for prevention of GVHD consists of T-cell depletion (TCD) of the graft. However, TCD usually leads to an increased risk of leukemia relapse because of the loss of the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Several groups have studied the feasibility of preemptive donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) to lessen the impact of TCD on leukemia relapse. Preemptive DLI is given several weeks to months after the transplantation, ie, after the cytokine storm and after the patient has recovered from conditioning-regimen-related toxicities. After briefly discussing various techniques of TCD of the graft and the efficacy of DLI, this article reviews the first clinical studies evaluating a strategy of TCD of the graft followed by preemptive DLI.