[en] BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that CD8 depletion or CD34 selection of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) reduced the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after nonmyeloablative stem-cell transplantation (NMSCT). In this study, we analyze the effect of CD8 depletion or CD34 selection of the graft on early T-cell reconstitution. METHODS: Nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen consisted in 2 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI) alone, 2 Gy TBI and fludarabine, or cyclophosphamide and fludarabine. Patients 1 to 18 received unmanipulated PBSC, patients 19 to 29 CD8-depleted PBSC, and patients 30 to 35 CD34-selected PBSC. RESULTS: T-cell counts, and particularly CD4+ and CD4CD45RA+ counts, remained low the first 6 months after nonmyeloablative stem-cell transplantation (NMSCT) in all patients. CD34 selection (P<0.0001) but not CD8 depletion of PBSC significantly decreased T-cell chimerism. Donor T-cell count was similar in unmanipulated compared with CD8-depleted PBSC recipients but was significantly lower in CD34-selected PBSC recipients (P=0.0012). T cells of recipient origin remained stable over time in unmanipulated and CD8-depleted PBSC patients but expanded in some CD34-selected PBSC recipients between day 28 and 100 after transplant. Moreover, whereas CD8 depletion only decreased CD8+ counts (P<0.047), CD34 selection reduced CD3+(P<0.001), CD8+(P<0.016), CD4+ (P<0.001), and CD4+CD45RA+ (P<0.001) cell counts. T-cell repertoire was restricted in all patients on day 100 after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation but was even more limited after CD34 selection (P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Despite of the persistence of a significant number of T cells of recipient origin, T-cell counts were low the first 6 months after NMSCT. Moreover, contrary with CD8 depletion of the graft that only affects CD8+ lymphocyte counts, CD34 selection dramatically decreased both CD8 and CD4 counts.