[en] Prevalence: The prevalence of pituitary tumors has been a topic of controversy for many years. Autopsy and radiological series show that pituitary incidentalomas may be present in one of six people. Recent epidemiological data suggest that clinically apparent pituitary adenomas have a prevalence of approximately one in 1,000 people in the general population. The disconnect between these two prevalence rates underlines the common clinical quandary of how to manage pituitary incidentalomas, particularly those lacking clinical signs/symptoms or hormonal abnormalities. Management: The natural history of incidentalomas suggests that periodic hormonal, clinical and radiological follow-up is the optimal approach. In the absence of tumor growth or relevant symptoms, screening can be continued intermittently or curtailed based on the clinical judgment of the physician. In the presence of hormonal hypersecretion, the management of pituitary incidentalomas, whether they are micro- or macroadenomas, should follow accepted clinical guidelines. For incidental pituitary macroadenomas without hormonal hypersecretion, clinical management should also include assessments for visual field impairment or hypopituitarism. In such cases, regular radiological and hormonal follow-up is required to identify tumor growth or the appearance of new symptoms. In the presence of tumor growth or new hormonal abnormalities, surgical options should be considered and discussed with the patient. Copyright (C) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.