[en] Prematurity remains a public health problem with a considerable psychosocial impact. Premature infants are discharged home more fragile and more precociously than infants born at term. Post-discharge nutrition and growth of the preterm infants should be carefully followed because of specific needs of these infants. Infections and cardiorespiratory abnormalities are more frequent in ex-premature infants. Some cerebral lesions may be shown by brain imaging suggesting future sequelae. However, estimation of their real consequences remains imperfect and long term prognosis contains many uncertainties. Cerebral palsy seems to be less severe nowadays, but all current gravity is due to disabilities which express later: hearing disorders, visual impairments, alterations of eye-hand coordination skills, attention deficit disorders, psychological troubles and school difficulties. Multidisciplinary consultations are designed for these children because early screening and adapted care can improve long term prognosis. All this underlines the importance of prolonged follow-up program after discharge for premature infants and others who presented worse suffer from hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy.