[en] During the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus infection, central nervous system insults are very common. They can consist of infectious complications, consequently to the collapse of the patient's immune system. Alternatively, direct or indirect HIV-mediated lesions of cerebral vascular or neural cells can also occur. It is crucial to detect HIV-related infectious complications since their prognosis will depend on early and accurate treatments. The diagnosis is generally made by means of magnetic resonance imaging and lumbar puncture.