[en] Humans ; Penicillins/therapeutic use ; Syphilis/diagnosis/drug therapy/epidemiology/transmission
[en] Rising incidence rate of syphilis is observed in economically advanced countries, particularly among homosexual men and subpopulation with low socioeconomic status. The various clinical presentations are divided into early and late stages, including neurosyphilis. The latter can occur during any stage of the disease, leading to the question "when to perform lumbar puncture", particularly in HIV positive patients. Penicillin continues to be the first-line therapy for all stages of syphilis. An alternative treatment should be considered as an exemption, after advice from a specialist. All patients require prolonged clinical and serological follow-up after treatment to rule out relapse or re-infection. The diagnosis of syphilis is an opportunity to search and treat other sexually transmitted diseases in patients and their sexual partner(s).