[en] Relevance of a Salmonella serological detection technique was studied from complete results obtained from 9 pigs fattening units. Feces and overshoes were sampled at different periods after starting fattening (2, 3 and 4 months) while caecal contents were taken on the slaughter line. The bacteriological technique used was based on a Diasalm enrichment and a commercial test was used for serology on an average of ten animals per batch. The aim of this work was to establish a correlation between serological results obtained at slaughter (10 samples/batch) and bacteriological results. In this context, two types of logistic regression models were tested by considering alternatively serology and Salmonella detection in caecal contents as the dependent variables. Firstly, beside the fact that all logistic regression models show weak correlations, the first finding was that positive results in overshoes taken at 2 and 3 months are slightly correlated with serological status of herds (odds-ratios of 4.96 and 2.55). Secondly, when batches were characterized as positive on the basis of serological results, the probability of Salmonella recovery in caecal contents was higher than when the batches were considered as negative (odds-ratios comprised between 4.36 and 5.81). A major conclusion is that serology can be used to follow the improvement of an integrated pig production system, but is not the unique solution for assessing risk of Salmonella shedding from specific herds. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.