[en] Chemical ecology is the study of how particular chemicals are involved in interactions of organisms with each other and with their surroundings. In order to reduce insect attack, plants have evolved a variety of defence mechanisms, both constitutive and inducible, while insects have evolved strategies to overcome these plant defences (such as detoxification enzymes). A major determinant of the influence of evolutionary arms races is the strategy of the insect: generalist insect herbivores, such as Myzus persicae aphid, need more complex adaptive mechanisms since they need to respond to a large array of different plant defensive chemicals. Here we studied the chemical ecology of M. persicae associated with different plant species, from Brassicaceae and Solanaceae families. To identify the involved adaptation systems to cope with the plant secondary substances and to assess the differential expression of these systems, a proteomic approach was developed. A non-restrictive approach was developed to identify all the potential adaptation systems toward the secondary metabolites from host plants. The complex protein mixtures were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis methods and the related spots of proteins significantly varying were selected and identified by mass spectrometry (ESI MS/MS) coupled with data bank investigations. Fourteen aphid proteins were found to vary according to host plant switch; ten of them were down regulated (proteins involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, protein and lipid synthesis) while four others were overexpressed (mainly related to the cytoskeleton). These techniques are very reliable to describe the proteome from organisms such as insects in response to particular environmental change such as host plant species of herbivores.