|Reference : Cell-Mediated Immune Response in Calves to Single-Dose, Trickle, and Challenge Infection...|
|Scientific journals : Article|
|Life sciences : Veterinary medicine & animal health|
|Cell-Mediated Immune Response in Calves to Single-Dose, Trickle, and Challenge Infections with Fasciola Hepatica|
|Bossaert, K. [> > > >]|
|Jacquinet, E. [> > > >]|
|Saunders, J. [> > > >]|
|Farnir, Frédéric [Université de Liège - ULg > Département de productions animales > Biostatistique, économie, sélection animale >]|
|Losson, Bertrand [Université de Liège - ULg > Département des maladies infectieuses et parasitaires > Parasitologie et pathologie des maladies parasitaires >]|
|[en] A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay was used to study the cell-mediated immune response in eight calves experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Hypersensitivity-related eosinophil and mast-cell responses were also assessed. The primary infection of 500 metacercariae was administered either as a single-dose or as a trickle infection over a 4-week period. Calves were challenge-infected 4 months later with 100 metacercariae and slaughtered 24 weeks postprimary infection. Skin eosinophil counts (SEC) were determined prior to infection on the basis of the intradermal reaction (IDR) to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). These counts correlated negatively with the mean fluke length but not with the fluke burden found at necropsy. At the end of the experiment, non-specific (PHA) and specific (excretory-secretory parasite, products, FhESAg, and whole-worm extract, FhSomAg) immediate type hypersensitivity IDR were elicited in contrast to delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. The SEC correlated with blood eosinophilia but not with parasite parameters. These findings suggest that the eosinophil response does not correlate clearly with the development of resistance to F. hepatica infection in cattle. A specific mononuclear cell response to FhSomAg was detectable as early as 7 days after infection in both infected groups, being significantly higher during the very early migratory phase of the juveniles in the single-dose infected calves than in the trickle infected calves. This response remained significantly higher in infected groups than in the control group throughout the experiment. Challenge elicited a significant proliferative response, less pronounced than after primary infection. No production of gamma-interferon (INF-gamma) was recorded 3 weeks after challenge. At necropsy, the mean number of flukes recovered was similar in both infected groups, suggesting that the rate at which the infection is administrated has no effect on protective immunity. Hepatic lesions, similar in both infected groups, were characterised by marked eosinophil and mast-cell infiltration. Liver biopsies were performed and their diagnostic value is discussed. All results suggest that F. hepatica infection predominantly induces a Type-2 response in cattle, and that this response has little protective effect.|
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