|Reference : Cloning of bovine prolactin cDNA and evolutionary implications of its sequence|
|Scientific journals : Article|
|Life sciences : Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology|
|Cloning of bovine prolactin cDNA and evolutionary implications of its sequence|
|Miller, W. L. [> > > >]|
|Coit, D. [> > > >]|
|Baxter, J. D. [> > > >]|
|Martial, Joseph [Université de Liège - ULg > Département des sciences de la vie > GIGA-R : Biologie et génétique moléculaire >]|
|Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.|
|[en] Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cattle ; *Cloning, Molecular ; DNA/*metabolism ; DNA Restriction Enzymes ; *Evolution ; Humans ; Prolactin/*genetics ; Protein Biosynthesis ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; Rabbits ; Rats ; Reticulocytes/metabolism ; Species Specificity|
|[en] Prolactin, growth hormone, and chorionic somatomammotropin (placental lactogen) constitute a set of related polypeptides believed to derive from a common evolutionary ancestor protein. We have cloned and sequenced DNA complementary to the mRNA coding for bovine prolactin. This cDNA contains 702 bases corresponding to 10 amino acids in the leader peptide, all 199 amino acids of the hormone, and 75 nucleotides in the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this cDNA permitted the identification of 10 amino acids in the signal peptide, plus the correction or elucidation of amino acid assignments at 16 sites where aspartic and glutamic acids had not been distinguished from their amides by amino acid sequencing. Codon usage in bovine prolactin mRNA is nonrandom, but, similarly to rat and human prolactins, it does not exhibit the strong preference for G or C in codon third positions seen in bovine, rat, and human growth hormone mRNAs. The translational termination signal in bovine prolactin in UAA, also the same as in rat and human prolactins and differing from the UAG "stop" codon used in bovine, rat, and human growth hormones and human chorionic somatomammotropin. The amino acid and mRNA nucleotide sequences of bovine, rat, and human prolactins and growth hormones were compared by several techniques based on various theories of molecular evolution. The comparison of prolactin to growth hormone is consistent in all three species, suggesting that the genes for these two hormones diverged about 350 million years ago. However, comparisons among the three prolactins or among the three growth hormones to determine the times of evolutionary divergence of the three species generated values that were inconsistent with each other and with the fossil record. Analysis of these discrepancies suggests that the genes for prolactin and growth hormone may now be evolving by different mechanisms.|
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