[en] bone turnover markers ; bone densitometry ; osteocalcin ; raloxifene ; osteoporosis
[en] The change in BMD is a poor predictor of vertebral fracture risk after raloxifene treatment. One-year percent change in bone turnover and BMD was used to predict vertebral fracture risk. The percent change in osteocalcin was determined to be a better predictor of vertebral fracture risk than BMD. Introduction: The association between baseline BMD and fracture risk is well understood. However, the relationship between changes in BMD and fracture risk is not well defined. It has previously been demonstrated that BMD change was a poor predictor of vertebral fracture risk in raloxifene-treated women, whereas bone turnover markers were significantly associated with fracture risk. In the current analysis, we explore the prediction of vertebral fracture risk using changes in both BMD and bone turnover. Materials and Methods: The Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 7705 women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene 60 or 120 mg/day for 3 years. Markers of bone turnover were measured in one-third of the study population (n = 2503), and the present analyses include these women. Logistic regression models were constructed using one-year percent changes in BMD and bone turnover and relevant baseline demographics to predict the risk of vertebral fracture with pooled raloxifene therapy at 3 years. All covariates were standardized before modeling to facilitate direct comparisons between changes in BMD and bone turnover. Results and Conclusion: Prevalent vertebral fracture status (p < 0.0001), baseline lumbar spine BMD (p < 0.0001), and number of years postmenopausal (p = 0.0005) were independent predictors of fracture risk in raloxifene-treated patients. Therapy-by-change in femoral neck BMD (p = 0.02) and therapy-by-change in osteocalcin (OC; p = 0.01) were also significant for all treatment groups, indicating that changes in BMD and OC have different effects on fracture risk for the placebo and pooled raloxifene groups. The final model included significant baseline variables and change in OC (p = 0.01), whereas change in femoral neck BMD was not significant. After adjustment of each significant baseline variable, the percent change in OC was better able to predict the reduction in vertebral fracture risk than the percent change in femoral neck BMD in patients treated with raloxifene.