Reference : Consumptive and nonconsumptive effects of cannibalism in fluctuating age-structured popu...
Scientific journals : Article
Life sciences : Environmental sciences & ecology
Social & behavioral sciences, psychology : Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology
Life sciences : Zoology
http://hdl.handle.net/2268/25261
Consumptive and nonconsumptive effects of cannibalism in fluctuating age-structured populations
English
Wissinger, Scott A. [Allegheny College > Biology Department > > >]
Whiteman, Howard H. [Murray State University > Department of Biological Sciences > > >]
Denoël, Mathieu mailto [Université de Liège - ULg > Département des sciences et gestion de l'environnement > Biologie du comportement - Ethologie et psychologie animale >]
Mumford, Miranda L. [Allegheny College > Biology Department > > >]
Aubee, Catherine B. [Murray State University > Department of Biological Sciences > > >]
2010
Ecology
Ecological Society of America
91
2
549-599
Yes (verified by ORBi)
International
0012-9658
Washington
DC
[en] Age structure ; Cannibalism ; Consumptive effect ; Population fluctuation ; Recruitment failure ; Tiger salamander ; Ecology ; Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum ; Amphibian ; Mexican Cut ; Colorado ; Rocky mountains ; foraging ; Feeding habits ; Food ; Density regulation ; Mesocosm ; Cohort ; Body size ; Polyphenism ; Polymorphism ; RMBL ; Catle tank
[en] Theory and empirical studies suggest that cannibalism in age-structured populations can regulate recruitment depending on the intensity of intraspecific competition between cannibals and victims and the nature of the cannibalism window, i.e., which size classes interact as cannibals and victims. Here we report on a series of experiments that quantify that window for age-structured populations of salamander larvae and paedomorphic adults. We determined body size limits on cannibalism in microcosms and then the consumptive and nonconsumptive (injuries, foraging and activity, diet, growth) effects on victims in mesocosms with seminatural levels of habitat complexity and alternative prey. We found that cannibalism by the largest size classes (paedomorphs and >age 3+yr larvae) occurs mainly on young-of-the-year (YOY) victims. Surviving YOY and other small larvae had increased injuries, reduced activity levels, and reduced growth rates in the presence of cannibals. Data on YOY survival in an experiment in which we manipulated the density of paedomorphs combined with historical data on the number of cannibals in natural populations indicate that dominant cohorts of paedomorphs can cause observed recruitment failures. Dietary data indicate that ontogenetic shifts in diet should preclude strong intraspecific competition between YOY and cannibals in this species. Thus our results are consistent with previous empirical and theoretical work that suggests that recruitment regulation by cannibalism is most likely when YOY are vulnerable to cannibalism, but have low dietary overlap with cannibals. Understanding the role of cannibalism in regulating recruitment in salamander populations is timely given the widespread occurrences of amphibian decline. Previous studies have focused on extrinsic (including anthropogenic) factors that affect amphibian population dynamics, whereas the data presented here combined with long-term field observations suggest the potential for intrinsically driven population cycles.
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (Communauté française de Belgique) - F.R.S.-FNRS ; National Science Foundation
Researchers ; Professionals
http://hdl.handle.net/2268/25261
Publication of the Ecological Society of America : http://www.esajournals.org/loi/ecol

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