[en] The cyclic appearance of dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction during mechanical ventilation, according to the phasic changes in preload, is described in this article. Hemodialysis-induced fluid removal resulted in preload dependence as evidenced by the pulse pressure variation in a 56-year-old critically ill patient. The clinical picture was suggestive of myocardial failure. Transthoracic echocardiography disclosed dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction associated with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. Progressive fluid restitution resulted in a parallel decrease in both the degree of dynamic obstruction and pulse pressure variation. During fluid loading, dynamic obstruction disappeared at first during the inspiratory phase of intermittent positive pressure ventilation corresponding to the phasic increase in left ventricular preload. Further fluid loading resulted in the disappearance of dynamic obstruction during both inspiratory and expiratory phase of intermittent positive pressure ventilation. This is the first reported case clearly relating left ventricular outflow tract dynamic obstruction to preload dependence during mechanical ventilation in a critically ill patient without predisposing anatomical factor.