[en] Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633 produces mycosubtilin, a non-ribosomally synthesized lipopeptide of the iturin family which presents antagonistic activities toward various phytopathogens. Different homologues with fatty acid moiety varying from C15 to C17 are usually co-produced, with their biological activities increasing with the number of carbons in the fatty acid chain. In the present report, we highlight that growth temperature modulates both the extent of mycosubtilin production and the relative abundance of the different homologues. A 30-fold increase in mycosubtilin production was observed when the temperature was decreased from 37 degrees C to 25 degrees C for both strain ATCC6633 and its derivative BBG100, a constitutive mycosubtilin overproducer. However, no significant difference in either the expression of the mycosubtilin synthetase encoding genes or in the intracellular synthetase concentration could be found, suggesting that the observed phenotype originated from a higher mycosubtilin synthetase turnover at lower temperature. We also point out that lower growth temperature leads to an increased proportion of odd-numbered fatty acid homologues as a consequence of de novo synthesis of C17 anteiso fatty acid following cell adaptation to low temperatures.