[en] Adventitious roots (ARs) are induced by auxins. Jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are also plant growth regulators with many effects on development, but their role on ARs needs investigation. To this aim, we analyzed AR formation in tobacco thin cell layers (TCLs) cultured with 0.01–10 μM MeJA, either under root-inductive conditions, i.e., on medium containing 10 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 0.1 μM kinetin, or without hormones. The explants were excised from the cultivars Samsun, Xanthii and Petite Havana, and from genotypes with altered AR-forming ability in response to auxin, namely the non-rooting rac mutant and the over-rooting Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB transgenic line. Results show that NtRNR1 (G1/S) and Ntcyc29 (G2/M) gene activity, cell proliferation and meristemoid formation were stimulated in hormone-cultured TCLs by submicromolar MeJA concentrations. The meristemoids developed either into ARs and xylogenic nodules, or into xylogenic nodules only (rac TCLs). MeJA-induced meristemoid over-production characterized rolB TCLs. No rooting or xylogenesis occurred under hormone-free conditions, independently of MeJA and genotype. Endogenous JA progressively (days 1–4) increased in hormone-cultured TCLs in the absence of MeJA. JA levels were enhanced by 0.1 μM MeJA, on both days 1 and 4. Endogenous IBA was the only auxin detected, both in the free form and as IBA-glucose. Free IBA increased up to day 2, remaining constant thereafter (day 4). Its level was enhanced by 0.1 μM MeJA only on day 1, while IBA conjugation was not affected by MeJA. Taken together, these results show that an interplay between jasmonates and auxins regulates AR formation and xylogenesis in tobacco TCLs.