|Reference : Bimodal pollination system in rare endemic Oncocyclus irises (Iridaceae) of Lebanon|
|Scientific journals : Article|
|Life sciences : Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)|
|Bimodal pollination system in rare endemic Oncocyclus irises (Iridaceae) of Lebanon|
|Monty, Arnaud [Université de Liège - ULg > > Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech >]|
|Saad, Layla [Université de Liège - ULg > Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech > Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech >]|
|Mahy, Grégory [Université de Liège - ULg > Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech > Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech >]|
|Canadian Journal of Botany|
|NRC Research Press|
|[en] Eucera ; pollination ; heat reward ; male solitary bees ; sheltering ; Xylocopa|
|[en] Pollination systems based on indirect rewards, such as heat and shelter, have seldom been studied. Plant-pollinator interactions were characterized in Iris cedretii Dinsmore ex Chaudhary and Iris sofarana subsp. kasruwana Dinsmore ex Chaudhary, rare endemic Lebanese Oncocyclus irises exhibiting potential adaptation to shelter pollination. Despite a diversity of floral visitors (47 species), only two groups of Anthophoridae male bees (Xylocopa spp. and Eucera spp.) could be considered as efficient pollinators on the basis of frequency of visits, visiting behaviour, and pollen load. Lebanese Oncocyclus irises showed a bimodal pollination system with (1) diurnal visits at low rates but with potentially large pollen transfers by Xylocopa bees, exhibiting a foraging-like behaviour, principally during warm periods of the day and (2) sheltering, especially Eucera male bees, during night and day when the weather is changeable. Refuge occurrence in flowers was more important during the night (27%) than during the day (12%) and, for daytime, during cloudy or windy than sunny conditions. It also varied depending on the exposure of floral tunnels. Visitation rates of both day-visiting Xylocopa and night-sheltering Eucera were negatively associated with an increase of the number of flowers per clump. No experimental evidence was found showing that the principal advantage for male bees to shelter in Iris flowers was to fly earlier in the morning.|
|Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (Communauté française de Belgique) - F.R.S.-FNRS|
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