[en] Bovine Leukemia virus (BLV) is the natural etiological agent of a lymphoproliferative disease in cattle. BLV can also be transmitted experimentally to a related ruminant species, sheep, in which the pathogenesis is more acute. Although both susceptible species develop a strong anti-viral immune response, the virus persists indefinitely throughout life, apparently at a transcriptionally silent stage, at least in a proportion of infected cells. Soon after infection, these humoral and cytotoxic activities very efficiently abolish the viral replicative cycle, permitting only mitotic expansion of provirus-carrying cells. Short term cultures of these infected cells initially indicated that viral expression protects against spontaneous apoptosis, suggesting that leukemia is a process of accumulation of long-lived cells. This conclusion was recently reconsidered following in vivo dynamic studies based on perfusions of nucleoside (bromodeoxyuridine) or fluorescent protein markers (CFSE). In sheep, the turnover rate of infected cells is increased, suggesting that a permanent clearance process is exerted by the immune system. Lymphocyte trafficking from and to the secondary lymphoid organs is a key component in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. The net outcome of the immune selective pressure is that only cells in which the virus is transcriptionally silenced survive and accumulate, ultimately leading to lymphocytosis. Activation of viral and/or cellular expression in this silent reservoir with deacetylase inhibitors causes the collapse of the proviral loads. In other words, modulation of viral expression appears to be curative in lymphocytic sheep, an approach that might also be efficient in patients infected with the related Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. In summary, a dynamic interplay between BLV and the host immune response modulates a complex equilibrium between (i) viral expression driving (or) favoring proliferation and (ii) viral silencing preventing apoptosis. As conclusion, we propose a hypothetical model unifying all these mechanisms.
Belgian Foundation against Cancer ; The 6th framework program INCA project of the European Commission ; The Bekales Foundation ; Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (Communauté française de Belgique) - F.R.S.-FNRS
"This is an, un-copyedited, author manuscript that has been accepted for publication in the Frontiers in Bioscience". Cite this article as appearing in the Journal of Frontiers in Bioscience. Full citation can be found by searching the Frontiers in Bioscience (http://bioscience.org/search/authors/htm/search.htm) following publication and at PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?CMD=search&DB=pubmed) following indexing. This article may not be duplicated or reproduced, other than for personal use or within the rule of "Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials" (section 107, Title 17, U.S. Code) without permission of the copyright holder, the Frontiers in Bioscience. From the time of acceptance following peer review, the full final copy edited article of this manuscript will be made available at http://www.bioscience.org/. The Frontiers in Bioscience disclaims any responsibility or liability for errors or omissions in this version of the un-copyedited manuscript or in any version derived from it by the National Institutes of Health or other parties."