[en] Several chemical entities have shown their ability to reduce axial and/or appendicular fractures in patients with osteoporosis. Since patients who have experienced a previous fracture are at high risk for subsequent vertebral or hip fracture, it is of prime importance to treat such patients with medications that have unequivocally demonstrated their ability to reduce fracture rates in patients with prevalent fractures. Results obtained with calcium and vitamin D, in this particular population, are not fully satisfactory and these medications are probably better used in conjunction with other therapeutic regimens. Bisphosphonates have shown their ability to reduce vertebral (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate) and non-vertebral (alendronate, risedronate) fractures in patients with established osteoporosis. Raloxifene has also shown similar properties, notwithstanding its effect on non-vertebral fractures, which has only been derived from a post hoc analysis limited to patients with prevalent severe vertebral fractures at baseline. This compound also has interesting non-skeletal benefits, including effects on the breast and heart. Teriparatide, a bone-forming agent, promptly reduces the rate of vertebral and all non-vertebral fractures, without significant adverse effects. Strontium ranelate, the first agent shown to concomitantly decrease bone resorption and stimulate bone formation, has also shown its ability to reduce rates of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in patients with established osteoporosis. It significantly reduces hip fractures in elderly individuals at high risk for such events. Its safety profile is also excellent.