[en] A relativistic Hartree-Fock mean field approximation is investigated in a model in which the nucléon field interacts with scalar and vector meson fields. The Hartree-Fock potential felt by individual nucléons enters in a relativistic Dirac single-particle equation. It is shown that in the case of symmetric nuclear matter one can always find a potential which is fully equivalent to the most general mean field and which is only the sum of a Lorentz scalar, of one component of a Lorentz tensor and of the fourth component of a Lorentz vector. A non-relativistic potential is derived which yields exactly the same single-particle energies and elastic scattering phase shifts as the relativistic Hartree-Fock potential. Analytical results are presented in the case of nuclear matter. A local density approximation is constructed which enables one to consider finite nuclei. The input parameters of the model can be chosen in such a way that the empirical saturation properties of nuclear matter are well reproduced. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated non-relativistic potential and the empirical value of the real part of the optical-model potential at low and at intermediate energy. At intermediate energy, the wine-bottle bottom shape which had previously been found for the potential in the framework of the relativistic Hartree approximation is maintained when the Fock contribution is included.