[en] Adult ; Age of Onset ; Analysis of Variance ; Blood Pressure/physiology ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Monitoring, Ambulatory ; Posture ; Pulse ; Reference Values ; Sex Characteristics
[en] OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulse pressure changes according to duration of type 1 diabetes and to assess the influence of posture. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed continuous measurement of blood pressure with a Finapres device during a 3 x 1 min posture test (standing, squatting, standing) in 159 type 1 diabetic patients divided into four groups according to diabetes duration (<or=10, 11-20, 21-30, and >30 years, groups 1-4, respectively) and compared the results with those of age-matched nondiabetic subjects. RESULTS: Pulse pressure progressively increased according to type 1 diabetes duration (P < 0.0001), especially in women, but not in age-matched nondiabetic subjects (NS). Pulse-pressure increase from group 1 to group 4 was amplified in the squatting position (from 50 +/- 17 to 69 +/- 14 mmHg) compared with standing (from 44 +/- 15 to 55 +/- 12 mmHg). CONCLUSIONS: Pulse pressure increases according to type 1 diabetes duration more in women than in men, and the squatting position sensitizes such pulse-pressure increase in both sexes.