[en] The impact of a recently closed old municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) on polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (POD), polychlorodibenzofuran (PCDF), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the surrounding environment and resident serum has been studied in a small rural area of France. Studied soils and eggs from chickens foraging on these soils were sampled in the vicinity of the MSWI under the prevailing wind stream, while comparison samples were collected outside the assumed impact zone. PCB levels observed in soils and eggs did not differ statistically from comparison sites. This confirmed the low impact of MSWI PCB emission on environmental media, compared to other well-known sources. PCDD/PCDF levels in soils and eggs were significantly higher than in comparison samples, pointing out the impact of MSWI emission on the surrounding environment. The high dioxin concentrations in eggs set aside for private consumption would increase the dioxin intake for the studied population. Blood specimens of 10 nonoccupationally exposed volunteers who had lived within a 2 km radius of the incinerator for at least 25 years have been analyzed. When adjusted for age, PCB and PCDD/F blood levels were higher than general European populations and comparable to a similarly exposed Belgian population.