|Reference : Management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.|
|Scientific journals : Article|
|Human health sciences : Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition|
|Management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.|
|Lefebvre, Pierre [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège - CHU > > Diabétologie,nutrition, maladies métaboliques >]|
|Scheen, André [Université de Liège - ULg > Département des sciences cliniques > Diabétologie, nutrition et maladie métaboliques - Médecine interne générale >]|
|44 Suppl 3|
|[en] Acarbose ; Administration, Oral ; Diabetes Mellitus/therapy ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diet therapy/drug therapy ; Diabetic Diet ; Exercise ; Humans ; Obesity ; Patient Education as Topic ; Sulfonylurea Compounds/therapeutic use ; Trisaccharides/therapeutic use ; alpha-Glucosidases/antagonists & inhibitors|
|[en] The initial management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) should include patient education, dietary counselling and, when feasible, individualised physical activity. It is only when such measures fail that drug therapy should be considered. Dietary management of NIDDM includes a restriction in calories, and these should be appropriately distributed as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Supplementation of the diet with soluble fibre and supplementation with magnesium salts if hypomagnesaemia is demonstrated, is recommended. However, supplementation with fish oils or with fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acids is not currently recommended. Oral drug therapies used in NIDDM include sulphonylurea derivatives, which are a first-line treatment in patients who are not grossly obese, metformin, which is the treatment of choice for obese patients, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors such as acarbose, which are used mainly to reduce postprandial blood glucose peaks. These types of drugs can be used alone or in combination. Insulin therapy may be required to achieve adequate control of blood glucose levels in some patients. In several instances, it is suggested that insulin therapy be combined with sulphonylureas (essentially when residual insulin secretion is present), with metformin, or with alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. The treatment of disorders associated with NIDDM, such as obesity, hypertension or hyperlipidaemia, requires particular attention in diabetic patients, since some drugs can adversely affect glycaemic control. Oral drugs for the treatment of NIDDM include sulphonylurea derivatives used in first-line treatment in patients who are not grossly obese, metformin, which is often the treatment of choice for obese patients and, more recently, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, such as acarbose, which are effective in reducing the postprandial rise in blood glucose.|
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