|Reference : Impaired immune responses in diabetes mellitus: analysis of the factors and mechanisms i...|
|Scientific journals : Article|
|Human health sciences : Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition|
|Impaired immune responses in diabetes mellitus: analysis of the factors and mechanisms involved. Relevance to the increased susceptibility of diabetic patients to specific infections.|
|Moutschen, Michel [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège - CHU > > Maladies infectieuses et médecine interne générale >]|
|Scheen, André [Université de Liège - ULg > Département des sciences cliniques > Diabétologie, nutrition et maladie métaboliques - Médecine interne générale >]|
|Lefebvre, Pierre [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège - CHU > > Diabétologie,nutrition, maladies métaboliques >]|
|Diabète & Métabolisme|
|Yes (verified by ORBi)|
|[en] Autoimmunity ; Bacterial Infections/immunology ; Diabetes Complications ; Diabetes Mellitus/genetics/immunology ; Disease Susceptibility ; Humans|
|[en] The reasons why diabetic patients present with an increased susceptibility to frequent and protracted infections remain unclear. The virtual absence of epidemiological studies of the independent risk factors involved contrasts with the multitude of in vitro models focused on the metabolism and function of immune cells from diabetic patients. This review analyzes some of these models and their clinical relevance. The different levels of diabetes pathogenesis: genetic (Type 1), autoimmune (Type 1) and metabolic (Type 1 and Type 2) are responsible for immune abnormalities demonstrated in in vitro models. The participation of genetic and autoimmune factors has been mainly characterized on T lymphocyte function. The B8 DR3 haplotype is associated with several minor immunologic abnormalities in vitro. However, the high frequency of this haplotype in healthy individuals argues against its involvement in significant defects of antimicrobial immunity. Genetic deficiency of C4, present in 25% of Type 1 diabetic patients could, on the other hand, be responsible for opsonization defects against encapsulated pathogens. Several immunological abnormalities related to the autoimmune process preceding the onset of Type 1 diabetes mellitus, such as the depletion of memory CD4+ cells and the defective natural killer activity could transiently impair host defences against viral diseases. Several in vitro functional defects of the immune system have been correlated with the metabolic control of diabetic patients. This suggests the involvement of insulinopenia in some of the abnormalities observed. Insulinopenia-induced enzymatic defects have often been proposed to inhibit energy-requiring functions of phagocytes and lymphocytes. However, the relevance of this mechanism could be confined to patients with extremely severe metabolic abnormalities. The importance of systemic consequences of insulinopenia such as hyperglycaemia and ketosis has also been addressed. Usually, the defects induced in vitro by these factors are slight and require supraphysiologic concentrations of glucose or ketone bodies. Recent studies have shown abnormalities of signal transduction mechanisms in which insulinopenia itself and other factors such as circulating immune complexes could be involved. Despite numerous controversies, many in vitro studies of the immune cells of diabetic patients have demonstrated significant defects which bear quantitative similarities with abnormalities described in other immunodeficiency syndromes. Furthermore, several mechanisms have been proposed to link the different defects observed with the specific infections encountered in diabetic patients.|
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