|Reference : Micro finance et dévéloppement communautaire au Cameroun: Le cas du réseau des mutuelles...|
|Scientific journals : Article|
|Social & behavioral sciences, psychology : Human geography & demography|
|Micro finance et dévéloppement communautaire au Cameroun: Le cas du réseau des mutuelles communautaires de croissance (MC²)|
|[en] Micro finance and community development in Cameroon: the case study of villages communities banks network|
|Lekane Tsobgou, Dieudonné [Université de Liège - ULg > Département de géographie > Géographie rurale >]|
|[en] Key words: microfinance, financial exclusion, MC² network, ; inclusive Co-production ; 3M|
Financing the rural economy has always been one of the main preoccupations of the Cameroonian economy which is 80% agricultural. The 1980-1990 decade has been marked in Cameroon by the drastic fall in the kilogram price of coffee and cocoa; state disengagement from the sector of activities in the rural world and the implementation of the structural adjustment policies. In the context of economic and financial crisis, promoters of microfinance establishments invented new development strategies from the base. These new strategies were based on inclusive co-production, to tackle the financial exclusion and the social security of low income rural populations. Among the microfinance establishments intervening in financing in rural areas, figures the network of MC² (Community Growth Assistance or Village Community Bank), which is a group of agencies whose principal objective is to restore hope to the poor.
The research question that has guided this work to progress: are MC² agencies proposing a different approach to financing economic and social projects in the rural world of Cameroon? To answer this question, we set as objective to analyse changes in the social-economic status of promoters of projects in Village Community Bank (MC²). The general hypothesis to be verified is as follows: MC² agencies propose a different approach to financing economic and social projects in the rural world Cameroon.
This Doctorate/Ph.D work is organised in three parts: the first part presents the network of MC² agencies in Cameroon. The second one treats the initiatives of MC² in Cameroon. The third part is interested at the outcomes of the initiatives of MC² in Cameroon.
The methodology adopted for the realisation of these three parts is based on the exploitation of data from documented sources from libraries, from the MC² network and from seminar and colloquium reports. To complete these data, direct field observations and field, surveys using questionnaires and semi-guided interviews were conducted with resource persons of MC² agencies, the Camccul, Adeac, Nowefor network and administrative sources.
According to surveys results carried out from 1992 to 2008, all the 79 agencies and rural development funds MC² distributed in the 10 administrative regions of Cameroon have mobilised funds of about 20 billions CFA francs of savings, representing 18.18% of the total funds collected by EMF in Cameroon. During the same period, they collected and distributed 30 billions CFA francs of loans, representing 22.5% in total loans of the EMF of the country. This sum represented 22.53% of EMF credit of the country. The credits thus collected were directed towards the financing of 29 920 economic and social projects (individual and community). More than 600 000 customers of MC², representing 11.53% of the total EMF customers with 93 410 individual members (82 280 men and women) and 11 130 groups of 50 people on average as against 5 200 000 customers of all the EMF of Cameroon were directly affected and 1000 000 persons indirectly, by a varied gamme of financial and non financial products and services. These banking products comprise of: loans, savings, transfer of funds, training and taking care of the members, advice on householding. This research work has demonstrated that from of the 420 customers surveyed, whose economic projects benefited from MC² financing, 300 of them representing 71.41% witnessed an annual increase in their incomes of at least 150 000 CFA francs. In like manner, 35.71% of agricultural and commercial project promoters, 11% of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and poultry rearing projects, 9.52% promoters of fish rearing projects and 7.14% of promoters of crafts projects became autonomous after reimbursing at 100% the loans to their MC² agencies. The distribution of economic and social projects has been unequal across all the regions of Cameroon. This unequal distribution concerned the different types of projects financed as well as the accumulated amount given out. For example, the MC² agencies of West Cameroon financed in 2008, some 5 300 individual economic projects to the tune of 3 500 000 000 CFA francs against 250 individual economic projects financed by the MC² of South Cameroon to the tune of 20 000 000 CFA francs. The immediate gains of these projects permitted promoters to ameliorate their well being as concerns: access to basic necessities, basic education; access to health care; the construction and the amelioration of dwellings. The different approaches of MC² in the sustainable financing of economic project in the villages of Cameroon, therefore, concern: the availability of credit, provision of consumption loans, availability of investment loans. It also concerns support to the organisation of mini agricultural shows in MC² villages, support to projects and programs of women independence, the democratisation of access to credit using authentic collateral security and the follow up - evaluation of conception, implementation and profit stages of customers projects, by the managers and qualified agronomists.
The diversity of non financial services and the financing strategies of social projects have permitted: to creat four solidarity health centres, five multi-media centres, four stores, one school farm training centre, support to the training of householding councellors and the vulgarisation of agricultural innovation.
Changes that have resulted from these different approach and strategies put in place by these agencies in MC² villages of Cameroon are: increase in purchasing power has given opportunity to average, big customers and promoters of economic projects to change their social status and to build new social identities. In like manner, increase in the revenue of small customers, promoters of small economic projects has permitted the later to ameliorate their well being.
This Doctorate/Ph.D thesis brings out the possibility to reduce the negative effects of poverty on the rural population, on the condition that the microfinance structure associate to their traditional services of micro credit and savings, innovating and complementary micro insurance and solidarity health association. Defeating poverty in rural areas rests on integrating the 3M model to the process of community development, where the formula VP= 3M.
The main objective of this study has been achieved. Its general hypothesis confirmed since the MC² agencies have succeeded in proposing in 79 villages a new approach of rural financing based on the solidarity chain in intergrating the rich cultural heritage to financial innovation.
Key words: microfinance, financial exclusion, MC² network, inclusive co- production, 3M model.
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