[en] Sheet metal forming ; Single Point Incremental Forming ; Finite element method ; Deformation
[en] Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) is a recent manufacturing process which can give a symmetrical or asymmetrical shape to an undeformed metal sheet by using a relative small tool. In this article, a two-slope SPIF pyramid with two different depths, which suffers from large geometric deviations when comparing the intended and final shapes, is studied. The article goal is to detect if these divergences are due to new plastic strain while forming the second angle pyramid by using finite elements simulations. To validate the numerical results, both the shape and the forces are compared with experimental measurements. Then, an analysis of the material state is carried out taking the equivalent plastic strain, von Mises effective stress and yield stress distribution through a cut in the mesh. It is noticed that there is plastic deformation in the center of the pyramid, far from the tool neighbourhood. Also, high values of stresses are observed under the yield stress in other parts of the sheet. As a strong bending behaviour plus membrane tension is found in some sheet elements, these elastic stresses are due to a bending action of the tool. It is concluded that the main shape deviations come from elastic strains due to structural elastic bending, plus a minor contribution of localized springback, as no plastic deformation is observed in the angle change zone. Future developments in toolpath designs should eventually consider these elastic strains in order to achieve the intended geometry.