[en] Algorithms ; Belgium ; Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology/mortality/prevention & control ; Cholesterol/blood ; Cholesterol, LDL/analysis/blood ; Dyslipidemias/blood/complications/mortality/therapy ; Europe ; Female ; Humans ; Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use ; Male ; Practice Guidelines as Topic ; Reference Values ; Research Design ; Risk Factors ; Sex Factors ; Smoking/adverse effects/blood
[en] The new guidelines from the European Atherosclerosis Society and the European Society of Cardiology include a number of updated items. In this paper, we summarize 4 of these changes that we consider to be the most pertinent. Firstly, cardiovascular risk is now stratified according to 4 (previously 2) categories: "very high risk" (patients with cardiovascular disease, patients with diabetes > 40 years old who have at least one other risk factor, patients with kidney failure, or patients in primary prevention with a SCORE value > or = 10%); "high risk" (patients in primary prevention with a SCORE value > or = 5% and < 10% or patients with a particularly serious risk factor such as familial hypercholesterolaemia or patients with diabetes < 40 years old without any other risk factor); "moderate risk" (primary prevention with SCORE > or = 1% and < 5%); and "low risk" (primary prevention with SCORE < 1%). The SCORE value for patients in primary prevention is estimated using the SCORE table (calibrated for Belgium). Risk in this table may now be corrected according to HDL cholesterol level. Secondly, the therapeutic targets for each category are now more stringent: LDL cholesterol < 70 mg/dl (or reduced by at least 50%) if the risk is "very high"; < 100 mg/dl if the risk is "high"; and < 115 mg/dl if the risk is "moderate". Thirdly, for patients at "high" or "very high" risk, particularly in patients with combined dyslipidaemia, two further therapeutic targets should be considered: non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels. Fourthly, the follow-up of efficacy (lipid profile) and tolerance (hepatic and muscular enzymes) is described in more details so as to harmonize case management in clinical practice.