[en] Postprandial hyperglycaemia depends on the amount and type of ingested carbohydrates and/or the degree of inhibition of hepatic glucose output following a meal. The kinetics of carbohydrate absorption is directly influenced by the type of food (carbohydrates with variable glycaemic indices, fibre content of the meal) and by the speed of gastric emptying. Hepatic glucose output is remarkably inhibited by insulin and strongly stimulated by glucagon. It remains abnormally high after a meal in diabetic patients because of insufficient portal insulin concentrations, hepatic insulin resistance and/or hyperglucagonaemia. In diabetic patients, postprandial hyperglycaemia contributes to the aggravation of chronic hyperglycaemia, and thus to the increase of glycated haemoglobin levels. Furthermore, it has been recently demonstrated that postprandial hyperglycaemia increases the cardiovascular risk, even in nondiabetic subjects, probably by inducing endothelial dysfunction. Appropriate dietary counselling plays a key-role in the control of postprandial hyperglycaemia. Generally speaking, it includes a selection of carbohydrates with low glycaemic index and a higher fibre intake. Pharmacological interventions may also be considered when necessary.