|Reference : Synthesis by sol-gel process of visible light sensitive-TiO2 for the degradation of poll...|
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|Synthesis by sol-gel process of visible light sensitive-TiO2 for the degradation of pollutants and microorganisms|
|Tasseroul, Ludivine [Université de Liège - ULg > Département de chimie appliquée > Génie chimique - Nanomatériaux et interfaces >]|
|Lambert, Stéphanie [Université de Liège - ULg > Département de chimie appliquée > Génie chimique - Génie catalytique >]|
|Páez Martínez, Carlos [Université de Liège - ULg > Département de chimie appliquée > Génie chimique - Génie catalytique >]|
|Hiligsmann, Serge [Université de Liège - ULg > Département des sciences de la vie > Biochimie et microbiologie industrielles >]|
|Thonart, Philippe [Université de Liège - ULg > Département des sciences de la vie > Biochimie et microbiologie industrielles >]|
|Pirard, Jean-Paul [Université de Liège - ULg > Département de chimie appliquée > Génie chimique - Génie catalytique >]|
|Heinrichs, Benoît [Université de Liège - ULg > Département de chimie appliquée > Génie chimique - Nanomatériaux et interfaces >]|
|International Symposium on Advanced Complex Inorganic Nanomaterials, ACIN 2011|
|11-14 September 2011|
|[en] Since the discovery of photocatalytic decomposition of water on TiO2 electrodes by Fujishima and Honda , heterogenous photocatalysis has been widely studied for environmental applications. Photocatalytic processes are new technologies for waste water treatment because new compounds (alkanes, pesticides, dyes, etc.) in effluents are not readily degraded by the conventional treatments . Oxidative processes can completely destroy organic pollutants  or microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc.) [4,5]. At this moment, the commercial Degussa P25 is the mostly used photocatalyst. Nevertheless, it requires UV light to be activated, that is why scientists try to activate TiO2 under visible light.
The aim of this study is to synthesize photocatalysts activated by visible light and to evaluate their activity for the degradation of pollutants and microorganisms. The sol-gel process allows the direct introduction of visible light sensitive species like porphyrins inside the TiO2 matrix during the synthesis .
Two tetracarboxyphenyl porphyrins are synthesized for the sensitization of TiO2 to visible light : the metal free tetracarboxyphenyl porphyrin and the nickel tetracarboxyphenyl porphyrin. These porphyrins are characterized by 1H NMR, FT-IR and UV/Vis spectroscopies. They are introduced during the sol-gel synthesis of TiO2 matrix. Diffuse reflectance and FT-IR spectroscopies are used to ensure that porphyrins are incorporated inside the matrix of TiO2. Indeed, characteristic porphyrins peaks appear on spectra. The cristallinity and specific surfaces of catalysts are also determined by XRD and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements respectively.
The depolluting efficiency of photocatalysts is evaluated for the degradation in water of p-nitrophenol, which is listed as one of the 114 organic pollutants by the Environmental Protection Agency in the US. After 6 h under visible light, 40 % of p-nitrophenol are degraded with some catalysts. The activity is influenced by i) the presence of porphyrins : the photoactivity increases with the amount of porphyrins ; ii) the nature of porphyrins : nickel porphyrins are more active than free metal porphyrins ; and iii) the crystallinity of catalysts : amorphous catalysts are less active than crystallized samples. The photocatalysts with the highest degradation rating of dyes will be selected for the degradation in water of Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus.
 A. Fujishima, K. Honda, Nature 238, 37-38 (1972)
 P. Gogate, A. Pandit, Advances in Environmental Research 8, 501-551 (2004).
 D. Chen, A. Ray, Water Research 32, 3223-3234 (1998)
 R. Watts, S. Kong, M. Orr, G. Miller, B. Henry, Water Research 29, 95-100 (1995).
 J. Hong, M. Otaki, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 101, 185-189 (2006).
 C. Wang, J. Li, G. Mele, G.M. Yang, F.-X. Zhang, L. Palmisano, G. Vasapollo, Applied catalysis 78, 218-226 (2007).
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