|Reference : Highly efficient organic/inorganic titania xerogels for photocatalysis applications|
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Engineering, computing & technology : Chemical engineering
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|Highly efficient organic/inorganic titania xerogels for photocatalysis applications|
|Bodson, Céline [Université de Liège - ULg > Département de chimie appliquée > Génie chimique - Nanomatériaux et interfaces >]|
|Bied, Catherine [ENSCM - Montpellier > > > >]|
|Páez Martínez, Carlos [Université de Liège - ULg > Département de chimie appliquée > Génie chimique - Génie catalytique >]|
|Cattoën, Xavier [ENSCM - Montpellier > > > >]|
|Pirard, Jean-Paul [Université de Liège - ULg > Département de chimie appliquée > Génie chimique - Génie catalytique >]|
|Heinrichs, Benoît [Université de Liège - ULg > Département de chimie appliquée > Génie chimique - Nanomatériaux et interfaces >]|
|Wong Chi Man, Michel [ENSCM - Montpellier > > > >]|
|Lambert, Stéphanie [Université de Liège - ULg > Département de chimie appliquée > Génie chimique - Génie catalytique >]|
|International Symposium on Advanced Complex Inorganic Nanomaterials, ACIN 2011|
|11-14 September 2011|
|[en] TiO2 heterogeneous photocatalysis is an attractive technique for the complete destruction of undesirable contaminants either in aqueous or gaseous phase by using solar or artificial light illumination. The main drawback of TiO2 is that it can be activated only by UV light because of its large band gap (3.20 eV for anatase). Thus, it would be interesting to sensitize TiO2 to the whole visible region by doping with non-metal atoms such as phosphorus. Furthermore, it was found that the P-doped species could significantly increase the specific surface area of the materials, which consequently exhibit a higher content of surface hydroxyl groups. Upon band gap excitation of TiO2, the photoinduced electrons and positively charged holes can reduce and oxidize the species adsorbed on the TiO2 particles. The high degree of recombination between photogenerated electrons and holes is a major rate-limiting factor controlling the photocatalytic efficiency. Attempts to increase the titania efficiency have been made by doping P-doped TiO2 with metals, such as Ag.
In the present study, a sol-gel method is developed to synthesize P-doped TiO2 and P/Ag-codoped xerogels by a cogelation method  based on the hydrolysis and the condensation of Ti(OC3H7)4 in the presence of a phosphoryled compound able to complex silver: NH2-(CH2)2-NH-(CH2)2-P(O)-(OC2H5)2, EDAP), in various alcohols. These xerogels are dried at 150°C under vacuum for 24 h, and calcined under air for 5 h at 350°C, 450°C, 550°C and 650°C. The resulting materials were characterized by ICP-AES, TG-DSC, TEM, XRD, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, FT-IR and diffuse reflectance measurements in the UV/Vis region. To measure the photoactivity of these new hybrid organic/inorganic titania xerogels, all these samples were tested for the degradation of p-nitrophenol under visible light.
The titanium, phosphorus and silver contents in xerogels were confirmed by ICP-AES. As expected, theoretical and actual Ti/P molar ratio and Ag contents in xerogels are similar and then after washing with THF for 48 h. These results allow to conclude that EDAP and Ag are well incorporated within the TiO2 matrix: EDAP is anchored in the titania matrix by complexation and cogelation with TTIP , whereas silver, first incorporated by complexation through the ethylenediamine fragment of EDAP, is present in the xerogels in the form of nanoparticles. It was found that the phosphor-doped species could significantly increase the surface area of the materials.  It is noteworthy that the porosity of these materials is not affected by the addition of silver acetate during the synthesis, a very slight decrease of the specific surface area being observed in all cases. The organic/inorganic hybrid titania materials display very high photocatalytic efficiencies in the degradation of p-nitrophenol compared to pure titania. Deeper investigations concerning the structure of these materials should enable a better understanding of the photocatalytic mechanisms involved with these hybrids and will soon be reported.
1. S. Lambert, K. Y. Tran, G. Arrachart, F. Noville, C. Henrist, C. Bied, J. J. E. Moreau, M. Wong Chi Man, B. Heinrichs, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 2008, 115, 609.
2. C.J.Bodson1, S.D. Lambert1, C. Alié1, X. Cattoën2, J-P. Pirard1, C. Bied2, M.Wong Chi Man2, B. Heinrichs1 ,Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 2010, 134,157
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