[en] The excitatory amino acid glutamate is implicated in the central control of many neuroendocrine and behavioral processes. The ionotropic glutamate receptors are usually divided into the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA (kainate and AMPA) subtypes. Subunits of these receptors have been cloned in a few mammalian species. Information available in birds is more limited. In quail, we recently demonstrated that glutamate agonists (kainate, AMPA, and NMDA) rapidly (within minutes) and reversibly decrease in vitro aromatase activity like several other manipulations affecting intracellular HCa21 pools. Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens into estrogens which is a limiting step in the control by testosterone of many behavioral and physiologic processes. Therefore, glutamate could control estrogen production in the brain, but the anatomic substrate supporting this effect is poorly understood. In quail, aromatase is mainly localized in the preoptic-hypothalamic-limbic system. We visualized here the distribution of the major ionotropic glutamate receptors in quail by immunocytochemical methods by using commercial primary antibodies raised against rat glutamate receptor 1 and receptors 2-3 (GluR1, GluR2/3: AMPA subtype, Chemicon, CA), rat glutamate receptors 5-7 (GluR5-7: kainate subtype, Pharmingen, CA), and rat NMDA receptors (NMDAR1, Pharmingen, CA). Dense and specific signals were obtained with all antibodies. The four types of receptors are broadly distributed in the brain, and, in particular, immunoreactive cells are identified within the major aromatase cell groups located in the medial preoptic nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus,
nucleus striae terminalis, and nucleus taeniae. Dense specific populations of glutamate receptor immunoreactive cells are also present with a receptor subtype-specific distribution in broad areas of the telencephalon. The distribution of glutamate receptors, therefore, is consistent with the idea that these receptors could be located at the surface of aromatase-containing cells and mediate the rapid regulation of aromatase activity in a direct manner.
Centre de Neurobiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire
National Institutes of Health - NIH ; Fonds de la Recherche Fondamentale Collective d’Initiative des Chercheurs - FRFC ; Communauté française de Belgique - CfB ; Université de Liège - Fonds Spéciaux pour la Recherche