[en] Inflammation and remodelling are constant features of asthma. They are present throughout the whole bronchial tree, even in the small airways (less than 2 mm). The inflammatory cell infiltrate and structural changes are, in most cases, identical. However, in severe asthma, nocturnal asthma and fatal asthma, the cellular infiltrate in the distal airways is more intense and the number of activated cells is increased. In fatal asthma there are major alterations in the distal airways involving the smooth muscle and the bronchial epithelium, and mucus hypersecretion leading to distal airway plugging. Thus the histopathological changes in the distal airways contribute to the most severe stages of asthma and should be targeted by treatment. Currently the non-invasive tools that reflect inflammation are unable to assess these changes in the distal airways.