[en] Tumor-necrosis factor alpha activity has been correlated to ineffective erythropoiesis in lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Infliximab (Remicade) is an anti-tumor-necrosis factor alpha chimeric antibody that is used in the treatment of patients with heumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease. Forty-six patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and a relatively low risk of developing acute leukemia were included in a randomized phase II study assessing the therapeutic activity of two dosages of infliximab administration (3 mg/kg versus 5 mg/kg). The primary endpoint was the response rate. Responses were observed in 3 of 22 patients (13.1%) randomized to the 3 mg/kg arm, versus 0 of 21 patients randomized in the 5 mg/kg arm. According to the statistical design of the current study, neither of the two infliximab dose schedules tested showed sufficient activity as a single agent in this cohort of unselected patients with early myelodysplastic syndrome.