[en] kingfisher ; Europe ; movements ; natal dispersion
[en] Previous publications on the migration and movements of kingfisher s have been limitid to a few countries; there has not been any previous synthesis of the data from the whole of Europe. The present study,based on the Euring database, related to the movements of 5991 ringed and recaptured birds. The data were classified according to the status of each individual (pulli, juvenile or adult) as noted at ringing, the time of year (autumn and winter; spring; breeding period), and general geographical area. In the first autumn and winter, half of the pulli remained in the nesting area. Those that did move (between 25 and 250 km) dispersed approximately equally in all directions. The tendency to migrate was most marked among birds born in Sweden. The tendency decreases progressively in the sequence North Europe/Central Europe/ North Western Europe, where only 5 % of birds migrate, moving in a southwesterly direction. Juvenile birds are less mobile (approximately 80 %) than the pulli. Those which do move have the same pattern of dispersion as the pulli. The tendency to migrate is especially marked in North Europe, and is almost non existent in Gread Britain and in the Mediterrannean peninsulas. In springtime, most birds are already nesting, but some migrate towards the N or NE, and some are delayed in their overwintering location. During the nesting period, the ex pulli rarely take over the burrow where they were born, while the majority of juveniles tend to remain in the area where they were first captured. Some adults do change area ot the time, this tendeny being more accentuated among females, while male birds appear to be more attached to their home territory. In subsequent autumns the patterns of dispersion, of distance and of direction of ex juveniles and ex pulli are indistinguishable from those of the first automn. In Sweden the adults migrate, whereas elswhere adults have similar behaviour as juvenile birds; but adults are even more sedentary.