[en] The intestinal microbiota is the largest source of microbial stimulation that exerts both harmful and beneficial effects on human health. The interaction between probiotic and enterocytes is the initiating event in immunomodulation and merits particular attention. The effects of probiotic is strain dependent and for each new probiotic strain, profiles of cytokines secreted by lymphocytes, enterocytes or dendritic cells that come in contact with the strain should be systematically established. To evaluate the effects of probiotics on the immune system, models that mimic the mucosa, and thus the physiological reality, should be preferred whenever it is possible. Then, the in vitro observed effects should be backed up by properly conducted randomized double bind clinical studies. More detailed studies are needed to determine the precise action mode of probiotics on both mucosal and systemic immunity.