[en] Over the last ten years, much progress has been achieved in intensive care medicine. Large randomized studies, most often their multicentric, were performed and their results were translated into rules to be followed for the most appropriate treatment of life-threatening organ failures. The place of non-invasive ventilation in the management of hypercapnic or hypoxic respiratory insufficiencies was thus defined, and the methods for less traumatic mechanical ventilation were specified. The techniques of renal replacement therapy were compared and the optimal doses of dialysis or hemofiltration were established. The metabolic support of the patients was also altered following landmark studies, such as the management of blood glucose, which deeply influenced the approach to critically ill patients.