[en] Metastases ; Metastatic niche ; Cancer stem cells ; epithelial to mesenchymal transition ; molecular signature
[en] Metastases formation is a complex process involving genetic and epigenetic modifications leading to several molecular pathway dysfunctions and alterations in the production and fonction of a panel of molecular mediators. Recent studies have shed light on the importance of multiple interactions occuring between tumor cells and host cells involved in the elaboration of a microenvironment permissive for tumor cell survival and growth. These tumor-host interactions are decisive, not only in the primary tumor, but also in secondary sites colonized by tumor cells. Cancer appears more and more as a sytemic disease in which tumor cell is one of the pawn in the game. System of defense are rapidly overwhelmed and tumor cells hijack host cells to promote their dissemination that likely occurs at earlier stages than initially anticipated. In the present review, we describe the novel concepts of metastases formation based on recent transcriptomic analyses and new insights acquired on the tumor microenvironment in the primary tumor and in secondary foci.