[en] The effects of enflurane, isoflurane, vecuronium, atracurium, and pancuronium on pulmonary resistance and heart rate were studied in 30 vagotomized dogs lying supine and anesthetized with chloralose-urethane. None of the five drugs affected pulmonary resistance when the airway was unstimulated. Enflurane and isoflurane significantly attenuated the increase in pulmonary resistance induced by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves. This effect was dose-dependent and similar for both anesthetics at equivalent multiples of their minimum alveolar concentration. Atracurium significantly (P less than 0.05) enhanced the increase in pulmonary resistance induced by vagus nerve stimulation; vecuronium had no significant effect. Pancuronium, up to a cumulative dose of 0.14 mg/kg, also significantly (P less than 0.05) enhanced the increase in pulmonary resistance induced by vagus nerve stimulation; but this effect was reversed by further increasing the dose. Pancuronium also attenuated the cardiodecelerator response to vagus nerve stimulation in a dose-dependent fashion. The underlying mechanisms for the attenuation of responses to vagus nerve stimulation by enflurane or isoflurane or for the increase in response with atracurium are unknown. Pancuronium at lower doses increases the response most likely by blocking prejunctional muscarinic receptors (M2) that physiologically inhibit vagally mediated increases in pulmonary resistance.