|Reference : Utilisation des composts de biodéchets ménagers pour l'amélioration de la fertilité d...|
|Dissertations and theses : Doctoral thesis|
|Life sciences : Agriculture & agronomy|
|Utilisation des composts de biodéchets ménagers pour l'amélioration de la fertilité des sols acides de la province de Kinshasa (République Démocratique du Congo)|
|[en] Use of household biowaste composts to improve acid soils fertility of the province of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo)|
|Mulaji Kyela, Crispin [Université de Liège - ULg > > > Doct. sc. agro. & ingé. biol.]|
|Université de Liège, Gembloux, Belgique|
|[en] Biowaste composts ; acid soils ; Fertility ; Microbial activity ; Yield ; Agronomic efficiency ; Kinshasa ; Democratic Republic of Congo ; Kinshasa ; République Démocratique du Congo|
|[fr] Composts de biodéchets ; Soils acides ; Fertilité ; Activité microbienne ; Rendement ; Efficience agronomique|
|[en] This work is part of the research for appropriate methods for sustainable management of the sandy soils of the province of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo), in order to ensure and guarantee the adequate food security. It consists of a scientic research of the use of composts produced from household organic waste in improving the quality of sandy soils to the province of Kinshasa. The general objective pursued in this work is to evaluate the impact of four repeated applications of organic matter from bio-waste compost on chemical and biochemical parameters dynamics in acid sandy soils and their productivity.
A pilot composting on a small scale has been installed for the production of composts from municipal solid waste and characterization of composts obtained has revealed the agronomic potential that presents this material.
The diagnosis of the condition agropedological soils revealed that soils of the three study sites are sandy classified as rubics arenoferrasols (dystrics), have excellent physical conditions for drainage, air circulation and root penetration possess variables charges colloids, show an acid reaction, low organic matter and low nutrient minerals contents. In addition, their water and nutrients retentions capacity are very limited, and are the main soil constraints to agricultural productivity of these soils.
After four growing seasons in real environments, the study of the reaction with the soil organic amendments (20, 40, 60 t.ha-1 MB) gave satisfactory results. The provision of continuous additions of organic composts significantly increased the values of pH, TOC, CEC, SB eff and reduced the rate of exchangeable Al saturation in the three sites. With the highest dose T3 (60 t.ha-1 MB), the pH increased at least 0.8 units and the carbon content multiplied by 2.5 to 3 on the three sites. CEC values increased from 3.3 to 5.02 cmol(+)mg.kg-1 and the toxic aluminum saturation decreased more effective than 90%.
Regarding biochemical parameters (microbial carbon & nitrogen, RB, RIS, APA, Unt, Ut), compost treatments induced a significant improvement in function and doses applied throughout the experiment. These contributions have induced microbial activity which contributed to the increase in soil nutrients (N, P, ...) by microbiological activities. The availability of nutrients and fourniture of carbon by the composts explain these increases.
In addition, yields on different test plants (Glycine max L. Merr, Arachis hypogaea L. and Hibiscus sabbariffa L.) were positively influenced by the treatments of organic composts household wastes. Compared with mineral fertilizers, their fertilizing potential is not negligible. According to the results observed, doses ≥ 40 t.ha MB-1 should be to keep and maintain an acceptable level of fertility and yields potentiel of crops. But low doses were more efficient than high doses of agronomic point of view. Doses ≤ 20 t.ha-1 MB are recommended in annual crop and regular. Phosphorus was found to be the most limiting element to agricultural production of soil sites studied whatever of the types of amendments and cultures used. Finally, the study indicates that for reasons of efficiency, availability and funds increased production may be obtained through synergy between the composts used in small quantities and fertilizer mineral supplements.
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