[en] The host immune response is believed to tightly control viral replication of deltaretroviruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV). However, this assumption has not been definitely proven in vivo. In order to further evaluate the importance of immune response in the BLV model, we studied the fate of cells in which viral expression was transiently induced. Using a dual fluorochrome labeling approach, we show that ex vivo induction of viral expression induces higher death rates of B cells in vivo. Furthermore, cyclosporine treatment of these animals indicated that an efficient immune response is required to control virus expressing cells.