[en] This review summarizes the recent literature concerning new data on the pathogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis and its natural evolution. Indeed, the main concern in endometriosis is the choice of treatment in cases of infertility problems: medical or surgical. This concern could hypothetically be avoided if endometriosis were considered as a spontaneously regressive phenomenon. The present paper also discusses the risk of recurrence and the results of in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in cases of ovarian endometriosis. Whatever type of surgery is performed, the results of in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer are not impaired, especially if damage to the ovarian cortex is avoided. Further studies are required to determine if oocytes from endometriosis patients are altered and could be responsible for the development of lower quality embryos.