[en] In the healthy brain, less than 5% of α-synuclein (α-syn) is phosphorylated at serine 129 (Ser(P)-129). However, within Parkinson disease (PD) Lewy bodies, 89% of α-syn is Ser(P)-129. The effects of Ser(P)-129 modification on α-syn distribution and solubility are poorly understood. As α-syn normally exists in both membrane-bound and cytosolic compartments, we examined the binding and dissociation of Ser(P)-129 α-syn and analyzed the effects of manipulating Ser(P)-129 levels on α-syn membrane interactions using synaptosomal membranes and neural precursor cells from α-syn-deficient mice or transgenic mice expressing human α-syn. We first evaluated the recovery of the Ser(P)-129 epitope following either α-syn membrane binding or dissociation. We demonstrate a rapid turnover of Ser(P)-129 during both binding to and dissociation from synaptic membranes. Although the membrane binding of WT α-syn was insensitive to modulation of Ser(P)-129 levels by multiple strategies (the use of phosphomimic S129D and nonphosphorylated S129A α-syn mutants; by enzymatic dephosphorylation of Ser(P)-129 or proteasome inhibitor-induced elevation in Ser(P)-129; or by inhibition or stable overexpression of PLK2), PD mutant Ser(P)-129 α-syn showed a preferential membrane association compared with WT Ser(P)-129 α-syn. Collectively, these data suggest that phosphorylation at Ser-129 is dynamic and that the subcellular distribution of α-syn bearing PD-linked mutations, A30P or A53T, is influenced by the phosphorylation state of Ser-129.