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See detailA Simple Method for Designing Shewhart X ̅ and S2 Control Charts to Guarantee the In-Control Performance
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg; Woodall, Bill

E-print/Working paper (in press)

The in-control performance of the Shewhart X ̅ and S2 control charts with estimated in-control parameters has been evaluated by a number of authors. Results indicate an unrealistically large amount of ... [more ▼]

The in-control performance of the Shewhart X ̅ and S2 control charts with estimated in-control parameters has been evaluated by a number of authors. Results indicate an unrealistically large amount of Phase I data is needed to have the desired in-control average run length (ARL) value in Phase II. To overcome this problem, it has been recommended that the control limits be adjusted based on a bootstrap method to guarantee that the in-control ARL is at least a specified value with a certain specified probability. In our paper we present simple formulas for the required control limits so that practitioners do not have to use the bootstrap method. An assumption of normality is required. The advantage of our proposed method is in its simplicity; there is no bootstrapping and the control chart constants do not depend on the Phase I sample data. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes formal child care availability for 0-3 year olds boost mothers' employment rate? Panel data based evidence from Belgium
Dujardin, Claire; Fonder, Muriel; Lejeune, Bernard ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

In 2003, a new multi-annual program aimed at increasing the availability of formal child care for 0-3 year old children was launched in Wallonia, the French-speaking part of Belgium. This paper is ... [more ▼]

In 2003, a new multi-annual program aimed at increasing the availability of formal child care for 0-3 year old children was launched in Wallonia, the French-speaking part of Belgium. This paper is interested in evaluating if this increased availability of formal child care resulted in a higher employment rate for women with at least one child under 3. To this end, we use a difference-in-differences approach based on municipality-level panel data, taking advantage of the fact that the increase in availability of formal child care differed greatly across municipalities. We find that the raise in child care availability significantly increased the maternal employment rate, but to a lesser extent than expected, most likely because of a substantial crowding-out effect. [less ▲]

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See detailCeci n’est pas un conseil !
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

La « Grande Récession de 2008 » a un mérite. Un seul ! Elle a rendu public le fait que personne ne savait exactement ce qui s’était passé, ni ce qui se passait. Pourquoi une telle crise de confiance avait ... [more ▼]

La « Grande Récession de 2008 » a un mérite. Un seul ! Elle a rendu public le fait que personne ne savait exactement ce qui s’était passé, ni ce qui se passait. Pourquoi une telle crise de confiance avait-elle vu le jour ? Quelles en seraient les conséquences ? Toutes et tous se sont trompés, y compris les meilleurs. Même celles et ceux qui étaient convaincus d’avoir raison ! Plus que jamais, l’incertitude, la saine et souveraine incertitude, garantit la liberté de l’investisseur... et du professeur ! [less ▲]

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See detailPromoting Competition at the Digital Age with an Application to Belgium
Copée, Pierre ULg; Gautier, Axel ULg; Lefevre, Mélanie ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

In this paper, we develop a fully-fledged postal market model to assess the extent of competition in the mail market in a context of declining mail volumes due to e-substitution. Our focus will be on the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we develop a fully-fledged postal market model to assess the extent of competition in the mail market in a context of declining mail volumes due to e-substitution. Our focus will be on the Belgian market situation that is interesting for at least two reasons. First, the homogenous nature of the country implies that the extent of the entrant's market coverage will be either limited to the few very densely populated areas or large covering the whole country at the exception of the few very sparely populated areas. Second, because strong licensing requirements -including coverage constraints- are imposed on competing postal operators and they may constitute barrier to entry. Our model allows us to estimate the extent of entry, the cost of meeting the licensing requirements for potential entrants and the impact of entry on the cost of the universal service. [less ▲]

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See detailLes biotechnologies de la reproduction des petits camélidés sud-américains
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Cucho Dolmo, Hernan; Ampuero Casquino, Enrique et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

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See detailWASP-121 b: a hot Jupiter in a polar orbit and close to tidal disruption
Delrez, Laetitia ULg; Santerne, A.; Almenara, J.-M. et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey, in close collaboration with the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes, of WASP-121 b, a new remarkable short-period transiting hot Jupiter, whose planetary ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey, in close collaboration with the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes, of WASP-121 b, a new remarkable short-period transiting hot Jupiter, whose planetary nature has been statistically validated by the PASTIS software. The planet has a mass of 1.183+0.064−0.062 MJup, a radius of 1.865 ± 0.044 RJup, and transits every 1.2749255+0.0000020−0.0000025 days an active F6-type main-sequence star (V=10.4, 1.353+0.080−0.079 M⊙, 1.458 ± 0.030 R⊙, Teff = 6460 ± 140 K). A notable property of WASP-121 b is that its orbital semi-major axis is only ∼1.15 times larger than its Roche limit, which suggests that the planet might be close to tidal disruption. Furthermore, its large size and extreme irradiation (∼7.1 10^9 erg s−1cm−2) make it an excellent target for atmospheric studies via secondary eclipse observations. Using the TRAPPIST telescope, we indeed detect its emission in the z′-band at better than ∼4σ, the measured occultation depth being 603 ± 130 ppm. Finally, from a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect with the CORALIE spectrograph, we infer a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of 257.8+5.3−5.5 deg. This result indicates a significant misalignment between the spin axis of the host star and the orbital plane of the planet, the planet being in a nearly polar orbit. Such a high misalignment suggests a migration of the planet involving strong dynamical events with a third body. [less ▲]

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See detailGarantir la légalité et assurer la traçabilité. Deux piliers de la mise en oeuvre de l'APV-FLEGT.
Moumbogou, Carl; Meunier, Quentin; Bracke, Charles et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

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See detailLes forêts communautaires et l'APV-FLEGT au Gabon
Moumbogou, Carl; Meunier, Quentin; Mvou Biyogo, T. et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Promu par l’Union européenne depuis 2003, le plan d’action FLEGT propose une approche novatrice de lutte contre l’exploitation illégale des forêts, en établissant un lien entre l’amélioration de la ... [more ▼]

Promu par l’Union européenne depuis 2003, le plan d’action FLEGT propose une approche novatrice de lutte contre l’exploitation illégale des forêts, en établissant un lien entre l’amélioration de la gouvernance dans les pays producteurs et l’accès au marché de l’UE. Ce plan concerne tous les titres forestiers, dont les forêts communautaires. Ces dernières ont été désignées au Gabon comme source légale de bois à la faveur des négociations d’un APVFLEGT avec l’UE. Dès lors, et afin de stabiliser le système qui sera mis en place, il est nécessaire de préparer des outils adaptés permettant d’articuler le FLEGT et les forêts communautaires. [less ▲]

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See detailA Bayesian statistical model for the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone
Frasso, Gianluca ULg; Lambert, Philippe ULg; Bonou, Wilfried ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone is analyzed using an extension of the SEIR compartmental model. The unknown parameters of the system of differential equations are estimated by combining data on ... [more ▼]

The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone is analyzed using an extension of the SEIR compartmental model. The unknown parameters of the system of differential equations are estimated by combining data on the number of new (laboratory confirmed) Ebola cases reported by the Ministry of Health and prior distributions for the transition rates elicited using information collected by the WHO Response Team (2014) during the follow-up of specific Ebola cases. The evolution over time of the disease transmission rate is modeled nonparametrically using penalized B-splines. Our framework represents a valuable and robust stochastic tool for the study of an epidemic dynamic from irregular and possibly aggregated case data. Simulations and the analysis of the 2014 Sierra Leone Ebola data highlight the merits of the proposed methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cycle sexuel de la femelle des petits camélidés sud-américains
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Cucho Dolmos, Hernan; Ampuero Casquino, Enrique et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

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See detailVariability in the super-Earth 55 Cnc e
Demory, Brice-Olivier; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Madhusudhan, Nikku et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Considerable progress has been made in recent years in observations of atmospheric signatures of giant exoplanets, but processes in rocky exoplanets remain largely unknown due to major challenges in ... [more ▼]

Considerable progress has been made in recent years in observations of atmospheric signatures of giant exoplanets, but processes in rocky exoplanets remain largely unknown due to major challenges in observing small planets. Numerous efforts to observe spectra of super-Earths, exoplanets with masses of 1-10 Earth masses, have thus far revealed only featureless spectra. In this paper we report a 4-$\sigma$ detection of variability in the dayside thermal emission from the transiting super-Earth 55 Cancri e. Dedicated space-based monitoring of the planet in the mid-infrared over eight eclipses revealed the thermal emission from its dayside atmosphere varying by a factor 3.7 between 2012 and 2013. The amplitude and trend of the variability are not explained by potential influence of star spots or by local thermal or compositional changes in the atmosphere over the short span of the observations. The possibility of large scale surface activity due to strong tidal interactions possibly similar to Io, or the presence of circumstellar/circumplanetary material appear plausible and motivate future long-term monitoring of the planet. [less ▲]

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See detailLe coût de l'énergie verte en Wallonie 2003-2012.
Boccard, Nicolas; Gautier, Axel ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

In 2003, the Walloon region has installed a tradable green certificate mechanism to support the production of ‘green’ electricity. In this paper, we estimate that the total cost of the mechanism amounts ... [more ▼]

In 2003, the Walloon region has installed a tradable green certificate mechanism to support the production of ‘green’ electricity. In this paper, we estimate that the total cost of the mechanism amounts to 1,871 billion € for the period 2003-2012, corresponding to a support of 107 €/MWh produced, with important differences between production technologies, the solar photovoltaic receiving up to 588 €/MWh. International comparisons indicate that the Walloon mechanism is particularly generous. We also show that the induced carbon savings are extremely costly with an implicit price of avoided CO2 of 425 € per ton. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailAura
Durand, Pascal ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Entrée du Lexique Socius sur le concept d'Aura chez Walter Benjamin

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See detailThe K2-ESPRINT Project I: Discovery of the Disintegrating Rocky Planet with a Cometary Head and Tail EPIC 201637175b
Sanchis-Ojeda, R.; Rappaport, S.; Pallé, E. et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

We present the discovery of a transiting exoplanet candidate in the K2 Field-1 with an orbital period of 9.1457 hours: EPIC 201637175b. The highly variable transit depths, ranging from $\sim$0\% to 1.3 ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery of a transiting exoplanet candidate in the K2 Field-1 with an orbital period of 9.1457 hours: EPIC 201637175b. The highly variable transit depths, ranging from $\sim$0\% to 1.3\%, are suggestive of a planet that is disintegrating via the emission of dusty effluents. We characterize the host star as an M-dwarf with $T_{\rm eff} \simeq 3800$. We have obtained ground-based transit measurements with several 1-m class telescopes and with the GTC. These observations (1) improve the transit ephemeris; (2) confirm the variable nature of the transit depths; (3) indicate variations in the transit shapes; and (4) demonstrate clearly that at least on one occasion the transit depths were significantly wavelength dependent. The latter three effects tend to indicate extinction of starlight by dust rather than by any combination of solid bodies. The K2 observations yield a folded light curve with lower time resolution but with substantially better statistical precision compared with the ground-based observations. We detect a significant ``bump' just after the transit egress, and a less significant bump just prior to transit ingress. We interpret these bumps in the context of a planet that is not only likely streaming a dust tail behind it, but also has a more prominent leading dust trail that precedes it. This effect is modeled in terms of dust grains that can escape to beyond the planet's Hill sphere and effectively undergo `Roche lobe overflow', even though the planet's surface is likely underfilling its Roche lobe by a factor of 2. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: The Commitments Procedure under Uncertainty
Gautier, Axel ULg; Petit, Nicolas ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Since the introduction of a commitments procedure in EU antitrust policy (Article 9 of Council Regulation 1/2003), the European Commission has extensively settled cases of alleged anticompetitive ... [more ▼]

Since the introduction of a commitments procedure in EU antitrust policy (Article 9 of Council Regulation 1/2003), the European Commission has extensively settled cases of alleged anticompetitive practices. In this paper, we use a formal model of law enforcement (Bebchuk, 1984; Shavell, 1988) to identify the optimal procedure to resolve cases in a context of uncertainty related to the law (L-uncertainty) and to the facts (F-uncertainty). We show that commitments are suboptimal when L-uncertainty is high. Furthermore, the generalized use of commitments creates an additional risk of under-enforcement when F-uncertainty is significant. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailParty autonomy in international family relationships : a research agenda
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

In recent years, party autonomy has conquered new grounds in cross-border private relationships. Building on first attempts in national codifications, party autonomy has become one of the leading ... [more ▼]

In recent years, party autonomy has conquered new grounds in cross-border private relationships. Building on first attempts in national codifications, party autonomy has become one of the leading principles used in various EU regulations dealing with cross-border family relationships. It can now be found in successions, in divorce, in maintenance matters. This new trend has been greeted sometimes with enthusiasm, sometimes with skepticism. While these Regulations constrain the choice that parties can make, it cannot be denied that the principle of freedom of choice has been openly embraced by the European legislator. Hence this principle evolved, at least within the EU, from what was until recently a marginal phenomenon to a well-respected solution for cross-border family relationships This (r-)evolution occurred quite fast and has attracted much attention. However, much of the research in this area has adopted a limited perspective, focusing exclusively on the possibilities and limits of choice in one specific instrument or adopting a comprehensive outlook but with a strong positive flavor. While it is true that a number of contributions provide excellent food for thought, the overall impression is that more time and more research is needed to start apprehending the fundamental questions raised by this evolution. At this stage, it may be too early to offer a comprehensive study of all questions raised by party autonomy in private international law. New developments may in fact modify the picture soon and add to the fields conquered by party autonomy. At the same time, the relative novelty of the changes makes it difficult to take full stock of all issues raised by the development of party autonomy. This is why scholars should first attempt to define a research agenda. This paper offers a first scratch by exploring various questions which should figure prominently in such agenda. It is by no means meant to be exhaustive. Rather, an attempt will be made to shed some light on the main questions raised by recent evolution in the hope of being an invitation for further research. [less ▲]

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See detailPasseport santé pour bananier
Massart, Sébastien ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

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See detailApproche agroforestière. Synthèse des travaux menés par le projet DACEFI2 en agroforesterie. Document de capitalisation.
Boldrini, Sylvie; Meunier, Quentin; Boukouendji, Basile et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Le projet DACEFI-2 a eu pour mission première la promotion de la foresterie communautaire comme outil de développement des communautés rurales. L’approche au Gabon en matière de gestion des terroirs ... [more ▼]

Le projet DACEFI-2 a eu pour mission première la promotion de la foresterie communautaire comme outil de développement des communautés rurales. L’approche au Gabon en matière de gestion des terroirs villageois s’est voulue plus embrassante, promouvant en sus de l’exploitation forestière des activités comme l’agriculture, le maraîchage, la collecte des produits forestiers non ligneux ou encore l’agroforesterie. L’agroforesterie est une thématique qui converge parfaitement avec la gestion raisonnée de la forêt, et idéalement avec les modes d’interaction préexistants des villageois avec celle-ci. Concilier dans un même espace la culture de plantes vivrières et l’accès à des arbres à fort intérêt socio-économique apporte une plus-value notoire aux parcelles cultivées. L’optimisation des techniques culturales permet une meilleure productivité et une incitation à la sédentarisation des cultures, élément important à considérer compte tenu des difficultés d’entretien des parcelles éloignées du village (notamment liées aux dégâts causés par les animaux). Ce recueil compile les travaux réalisés en agroforesterie par les équipes du projet DACEFI-2. Il rappelle la stratégie d’intervention et les différentes activités menées, de la sensibilisation auprès des plus jeunes à la promotion de certains produits forestiers non ligneux à potentiel économique avéré. La promotion de l’arbre, de la récolte de la graine jusqu’à sa plantation en passant par sa mise en pépinière aura également animé toute l’équipe durant ces années d’exercice, afin de faire un peu plus valoir ses multiples intérêts et susciter les efforts de gestion, de conservation et de reboisement. [less ▲]

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See detailAccess to Electoral Rights Bolivia
Zegada, Maria Teresa; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

The issue of passive and active electoral rights in Bolivia has gone through various phases that are examined in details in this article. Universal suffrage in Bolivia occurred around the same time as in ... [more ▼]

The issue of passive and active electoral rights in Bolivia has gone through various phases that are examined in details in this article. Universal suffrage in Bolivia occurred around the same time as in most states in that region: in the middle of the 20th century. The next wave of reforms occurred during the 1980s when dictatorships were removed from power. At that time, processes of democratization intensified in Bolivia and other parts of Latin America, eventually leading to the progressive strengthening of democratic institutions. It is really during the 1990s and early 2000s that the most important democratic transformations occurred. Major institutional reforms were passed during this period in particular to increase the participation of women and indigenous peoples in public affairs. The inclusion of the principles of gender equality and interculturality in the new constitution of 2009 is one of the clearest sign of this new approach. Similarly, another sector of the Bolivian population that had been traditionally prevented from exercising political rights. that is, Bolivians residing abroad have been closely attended to by the Evo Morales government since 2006. After the first external voting experience in 2009, the system was once again reformed to enable greater participation from abroad in the 2014 presidential election. These elements confirm that the extension of political rights in Bolivia is a process that has gone trough major changes over the past two decades but remains a work in process. [less ▲]

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See detailSome misunderstood or unknown tricks (XIII) (LaTeX)
Merciadri, Luca ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

We will here again consider many tips and tricks. This time, they will mostly come from Glad Deschrijver, TeX Tricks, 2011. (http://users.ugent.be/~gdschrij/LaTeX/textricks.html.) Tricks: vertically ... [more ▼]

We will here again consider many tips and tricks. This time, they will mostly come from Glad Deschrijver, TeX Tricks, 2011. (http://users.ugent.be/~gdschrij/LaTeX/textricks.html.) Tricks: vertically aligned itemize environments, allowing linebreaks after comma in math mode, writing under and over elements, and using stacks, footnotes with a new number at each section, footnotes in tabular, splitting algorithm environments on multiple pages, let " produce opening/closing quotation marks, indenting some text but not the first line, using diagonal dots positioned according to the opposite diagonal, using a centered verbatim environment, drawing a table with dashed lines, shaded cells and arrows pointing at a row and a column, correct spacing around square brackets (used for sets) in math mode. [less ▲]

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See detailSome misunderstood or unknown LaTeX tricks (XIV) and LaTeX learning curve
Merciadri, Luca ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

We will here give three tricks: i. using a personalized \overline, ii. boxing every digit of an integer, iii. using \scalebox. I will then expose my point of view about the LaTeX learning curve, and give ... [more ▼]

We will here give three tricks: i. using a personalized \overline, ii. boxing every digit of an integer, iii. using \scalebox. I will then expose my point of view about the LaTeX learning curve, and give some of the most common beginners’ mistakes. [less ▲]

See detailSome misunderstood or unknown LaTeX tricks (XV)
Merciadri, Luca ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

After having looked at about 150 StackExchange pages of 50 topics (that sums up to about 7500 topics’ names), I give you, in this article and in the next issue, the most interesting topics’ answers to my ... [more ▼]

After having looked at about 150 StackExchange pages of 50 topics (that sums up to about 7500 topics’ names), I give you, in this article and in the next issue, the most interesting topics’ answers to my eyes. We will first begin by two additions in regard to 31(3), 32(1). [less ▲]

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See detailSome misunderstood or unknown LaTeX tricks (XVI)
Merciadri, Luca ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

This is the second (and last) part of the tricks I found on StackExchange. First part began in the preceding issue. We will begin by a personal trick, and end by some inquiry about my LaTeX Tips & Tricks.

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See detailImportance et rôle de l’investissement…
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Quelques observations et réflexions en réponse à une question qui m’est souvent posée sur l’importance et le rôle des investisseurs. Ces « Charognards », particulièrement visés au cours des périodes de ... [more ▼]

Quelques observations et réflexions en réponse à une question qui m’est souvent posée sur l’importance et le rôle des investisseurs. Ces « Charognards », particulièrement visés au cours des périodes de tension géopolitique, de populisme ou de débauche monétaire, semblables à celle que nous vivons aujourd’hui. Ma réponse en peu de mots : les investisseurs sont des défenseurs de la valeur du travail par temps calme et des vigies dans la tempête ! [less ▲]

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See detailDocuments as a source of information; Tabular packages' purposes, conflicts; Same space in matrices; Logic inferences
Merciadri, Luca ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

The various aspects of the title are considered.

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (16 ULg)
See detailSome misunderstood or unknown tricks (X) (LaTeX)
Merciadri, Luca ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

This is the 10th edition of my `Tips & Tricks.' This time, we shall first see how to write `dancing text,' roman numerals, how to draw under and over braces on same elements, and how to display aligned ... [more ▼]

This is the 10th edition of my `Tips & Tricks.' This time, we shall first see how to write `dancing text,' roman numerals, how to draw under and over braces on same elements, and how to display aligned (in)equations systems. We will then end by discussing on BibLaTeX and Biber, which constitute a promising alternative to BibTeX. [less ▲]

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See detailSome misunderstood or unknown tricks (XI) (LaTeX) and encoding issues (II)
Merciadri, Luca ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Three subjects will be detailed: 1. Using LaTeX syntax as an unambiguous way to communicate, 2. Writing a bold \ell, 3. Fonts' encodings.

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See detailEntretien avec Kathryn Batchelor
Oumarou Mal Mazou, Rachid ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailTransnational Health Insurance Schemes: A New Avenue for Congolese Immigrants in Belgium to Care for Their Relatives’ Health from Abroad?
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Lizin, Olivier

E-print/Working paper (2015)

What can immigrants do for non-migrant relatives in their home country who need healthcare they cannot afford? To answer this question, we first examine four existing methods that can be found in the ... [more ▼]

What can immigrants do for non-migrant relatives in their home country who need healthcare they cannot afford? To answer this question, we first examine four existing methods that can be found in the existing literature: mobility, remittances, workers’ health insurance and diasporic health insurance. In the second part of the paper, we discuss an innovative strategy called “transnational health insurance” (THI). These insurance schemes are set up by immigrants in cooperation with a multitude of actors including health insurance companies in destination countries and healthcare providers in countries origin. THIs offer health coverage to non-migrant relatives in the home country based on a premium paid directly by immigrants to the insurance company in their country of residence. Analyzing the creation and implementation of Belgian-Congolese THIs, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these schemes in responding to the needs of both immigrants and their non-migrant relatives. The article concludes with a discussion on the specificities of THIs as hybrid forms of remittances. [less ▲]

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See detailA semiparametric model for Generalized Pareto regression based on a dimension reduction assumption
Hambuckers, julien ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg; Lopez, Olivier

E-print/Working paper (2015)

In this paper, we consider a regression model in which the tail of the conditional distribution of the response can be approximated by a Generalized Pareto distribution. Our model is based on a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we consider a regression model in which the tail of the conditional distribution of the response can be approximated by a Generalized Pareto distribution. Our model is based on a semiparametric single-index assumption on the conditional tail index; while no further assumption on the conditional scale parameter is made. The underlying dimension reduction assumption allows the procedure to be of prime interest in the case where the dimension of the covariates is high, in which case the purely nonparametric techniques fail while the purely parametric ones are too rough to correctly fit to the data. We derive asymptotic normality of the estimators that we define, and propose an iterative algorithm in order to perform their practical implementation. Our results are supported by some simulations and a practical application on a public database of operational losses. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine Learning to Balance the Load in Parallel Branch-and-Bound
Marcos Alvarez, Alejandro ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg; Louveaux, Quentin ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

We describe in this paper a new approach to parallelize branch-and-bound on a certain number of processors. We propose to split the optimization of the original problem into the optimization of several ... [more ▼]

We describe in this paper a new approach to parallelize branch-and-bound on a certain number of processors. We propose to split the optimization of the original problem into the optimization of several subproblems that can be optimized separately with the goal that the amount of work that each processor carries out is balanced between the processors, while achieving interesting speedups. The main innovation of our approach consists in the use of machine learning to create a function able to estimate the difficulty (number of nodes) of a subproblem of the original problem. We also present a set of features that we developed in order to characterize the encountered subproblems. These features are used as input of the function learned with machine learning in order to estimate the difficulty of a subproblem. The estimates of the numbers of nodes are then used to decide how to partition the original optimization tree into a given number of subproblems, and to decide how to distribute them among the available processors. The experiments that we carry out show that our approach succeeds in balancing the amount of work between the processors, and that interesting speedups can be achieved with little effort. [less ▲]

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See detailQue veut dire FLEGT ? Et pourquoi au Gabon ?
Moumbogou, Carl; Meunier, Quentin; Mvou Biyogo, T. et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

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See detailA branch-and-price algorithm for 2-period vehicle routing problems
Crama, Yves ULg; Rezaei Sadrabadi, Mahmood ULg; Van Woensel, Tom

E-print/Working paper (2015)

We consider a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) with deterministic orders in two periods from a set of stores. Orders in period 1 (2) can be postponed (advanced) to the other period but any diversion from the ... [more ▼]

We consider a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) with deterministic orders in two periods from a set of stores. Orders in period 1 (2) can be postponed (advanced) to the other period but any diversion from the initial orders incurs a penalty. From the perspective of a Logistics Service Provider (LSP), such diversions could be beneficial if savings in the routing costs outweigh the penalties. So could they be from a store's view, as the store can set a high enough penalty to compensate the diversion from its own optimal orders. In this paper, we introduce a new model where we seek a better solution for the LSP, compared to solving two independent VRPs with fixed orders, by allowing orders to be fully postponed or advanced. We apply a branch-and-price algorithm to solve this model to optimality. Many cutting-edge techniques are implemented to have an efficient branch-and-price algorithm, and two ideas to possibly improve the upper bound are tested. We draw algorithmic and managerial insights based on our test instances. [less ▲]

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See detailInvesting in the Future
Pahud de Mortanges, Charles ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

This paper attempts to address the challenges of how to invest in Synthetic Biology firms, most of which are relatively new start-ups and unprofitable. Valuing an early-stage firm with only a brief ... [more ▼]

This paper attempts to address the challenges of how to invest in Synthetic Biology firms, most of which are relatively new start-ups and unprofitable. Valuing an early-stage firm with only a brief operating history, little or no operating profit (or even revenue), and an immature and untested business model, could be a formidable challenge. We propose a limited number of quantitative, and a larger number of qualitative criteria. An investor may consider these when faced with analyzing a new untried business, but one he/she believes has considerable potential for success in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the nature of cosmological time
Magain, Pierre ULg; Hauret, Clémentine ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Time is a parameter playing a central role in our most fundamental modeling of natural laws. Relativity theory shows that the comparison of times measured by different clocks depends on their relative ... [more ▼]

Time is a parameter playing a central role in our most fundamental modeling of natural laws. Relativity theory shows that the comparison of times measured by different clocks depends on their relative motions and on the strength of the gravitational field in which they are embedded. In standard cosmology, the time parameter is the one measured by fundamental clocks, i.e. clocks at rest with respect to the expanding space. This proper time is assumed to flow at a constant rate throughout the whole history of the Universe. We make the alternative hypothesis that the rate at which cosmological time flows depends on the dynamical state of the Universe. In thermodynamics, the arrow of time is strongly related to the second law, which states that the entropy of an isolated system will always increase with time or, at best, stay constant. Hence, we assume that time measured by fundamental clocks is proportional to the entropy of the region of the Universe that is causally connected to them. Under that simple assumption, we build a cosmological model that explains the Type Ia Supernovae data (the best cosmological standard candles) without the need for exotic dark matter nor dark energy. [less ▲]

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See detailSequential testing of k-out-of-n systems with imperfect tests
Wenchao, Wei; Coolen, Kris ULg; Talla Nobibon, Fabrice et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

A k-out-of-n system configuration requires that, for the overall system to be functional, at least k out of the total of n components be working. We consider the problem of sequentially testing the ... [more ▼]

A k-out-of-n system configuration requires that, for the overall system to be functional, at least k out of the total of n components be working. We consider the problem of sequentially testing the components of a k-out-of-n system in order to learn the state of the system, when the tests are costly and when the individual component tests are imperfect, which means that a test can identify a component as working when in reality it is down, and vice versa. Each component is tested at most once. Since tests are imperfect, even when all components are tested the state of the system is not necessarily known with certainty, and so reaching a lower bound on the probability of correctness of the system state is used as a stopping criterion for the inspection. We define different classes of inspection policies and we examine global optimality of each of the classes. We find that a globally optimal policy for diagnosing k-out-of-n systems with imperfect tests can be found in polynomial time when the predictive error probabilities are the same for all the components. Of the three policy classes studied, the dominant policies always contain a global optimum, while elementary policies are compact in representation. The newly introduced class of so-called `interrupted block-walking' policies combines these merits of global optimality and of compactness. [less ▲]

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See detailLacunary wavelet series on Cantor sets
Esser, Céline ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

We construct functions with prescribed multifractal spectra which satisfy the leaders profile method.

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See detailPolicy dialogue: What it is and how it can contribute to evidence-informed decision-making.
Rajan, D; El Husseiny, D; Porignon, Denis ULg et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailDoes sector-specific experience matter? The case of European higher education ministers
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Jacqmin, Julien

E-print/Working paper (2015)

This paper looks at the relationship between higher education ministers and the performance of the sector that they govern. Using an original panel dataset with the characteristics of European higher ... [more ▼]

This paper looks at the relationship between higher education ministers and the performance of the sector that they govern. Using an original panel dataset with the characteristics of European higher education ministers, we find that having a past experience in the sector leads to a higher level of performance, as measured by ranking data. Making a parallel with the literature about the impact of education on the educated, we discuss potential explanations behind the impact of this on-the-job learning experience. As we find that this characteristic has no impact on the spendings of the sector, we argue that this academic experience makes them more prone to introduce adequate reforms. Furthermore, we find that this result is driven by ministers with both this sector-specific and an electoral experience, the latter measured by a succesful election at the regional or national level. This tends to show that political credibility should not be overshadowed by the importance of the sector-specific experience of ministers. [less ▲]

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See detailPERFORMANCE ET INVENTION. LE LABORATOIRE DE L’EXPERIENCE ESTHETIQUE
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Lorsqu’il cherche à qualifier l’époque de l’art dans laquelle nous baignons actuellement, le philosophe Jacques Rancière parle d’un régime pour lequel l’expérience esthétique serait déterminante ... [more ▼]

Lorsqu’il cherche à qualifier l’époque de l’art dans laquelle nous baignons actuellement, le philosophe Jacques Rancière parle d’un régime pour lequel l’expérience esthétique serait déterminante : sensible (par définition) et prise dans un rapport paradoxal de continuité et d’exception avec l’expérience commune. Le régime esthétique de l’art – celui qui affecte les productions artistiques contemporaines – signerait notamment l’effacement des spécificités des arts (et l’abandon du régime très hiérarchisé des Beaux-Arts) au profit d’une expérience sensible commune à toutes les formes d’expression artistiques . Le propre de l’art serait donc de faire vivre à son spectateur une telle expérience, qui toucherait directement ses sens et son imagination. Une expérience dont la tonalité particulière serait directement reconnaissable. Une expérience en excès par rapport à ses habitudes et qui le ferait basculer progressivement dans le domaine si singulier de l’art. On voudrait ici défendre l’idée suivante : la performance artistique semble l’une des animatrices principales de ce régime contemporain en tant qu’elle vise à dégager – au-delà des particularismes des médias d’expression – un territoire très large (un laboratoire) d’expérimentation pour l’art. À travers leurs propositions, les artistes performeurs ne produisent pas des œuvres d’art (c’est-à-dire des produits finis), ils montrent le travail de la créativité à l’œuvre. [less ▲]

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See detailPropriété coopérative et acceptabilité sociale de l’éolien terrestre : une étude économétrique
Bauwens, Thomas ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Onshore wind power development in Belgium has provoked considerable opposition at the local level. To cope with this issue, wind power cooperatives seem to present important assets. This article explores ... [more ▼]

Onshore wind power development in Belgium has provoked considerable opposition at the local level. To cope with this issue, wind power cooperatives seem to present important assets. This article explores the reasons why these organizations are likely to enhance social acceptability of this technology. Then it confronts these normative assumptions with empirical data. The results of this analysis confirm the positive effect of cooperative ownership on the social acceptability of onshore wind turbines. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Enterprise in Belgium: A Diversity of Roots, Models and Fields
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

This working paper is structured as follows. The first introductory section reviews the main historical roots that have led to the emergence of a diversity of models related to social enterprise and the ... [more ▼]

This working paper is structured as follows. The first introductory section reviews the main historical roots that have led to the emergence of a diversity of models related to social enterprise and the social economy in Belgium. Next, the second section sketches the main features of these models in terms of legal forms, types of social missions addressed, governance dynamics and resources. In the third section, these models are then illustrated in different fields of activity both established and emerging. Finally, the fourth section proposes a transversal analysis of the main trends and challenges facing the development and coexistence of the different models. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical analysis and alternative processing of Type Ia supernovae data
Hauret, Clémentine ULg; Magain, Pierre ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Context: Type Ia Supernovae (SNIa) observations in the late 90’s were the first hints for an accelerated expansion of our Universe. Today, hundreds of objects have been observed and seem to confirm the ... [more ▼]

Context: Type Ia Supernovae (SNIa) observations in the late 90’s were the first hints for an accelerated expansion of our Universe. Today, hundreds of objects have been observed and seem to confirm the flat LambdaCDM model as the cosmological model best representing our Universe. Aims: We study the SNIa observations gathered in the Union 2.1 and in the JLA compilations. By analyzing correlations and different ways of comparing cosmological models to the data, we bring to light some statistical biases, due to the current way of computing SNIa luminosity corrections for light-curve shape, color and host galaxy mass. Methods: We suggest an alternative, safer and model-independent methodology to calibrate the luminosity corrections, using only nearby SNIa. Results: With our recalibrated data, biases are strongly reduced. Moreover, open cosmological models are shown to be favoured over flat models (Omega_m,0 = 0.26+-0.08, Omega_Lambda,0 = 0.66+-0.12 for the SCP compilation and Omega_m,0 = 0.20+-0.08, Omega_Lambda,0 = 0.56+- 0.13 for the JLA one). Conclusions: The usual method to process SNIa data, i.e. simultaneously determining the parameters of the cosmological model and of the luminosity corrections on the full sample, is prone to bias the data in favour of the assumed cosmology, currently a flat LambdaCDM model, as well as to bias the cosmological parameters of the assumed model. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards generic image classification: an extensive empirical study
Marée, Raphaël ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

This paper considers the general problem of image classification without using any prior knowledge about image classes. We study variants of a method based on supervised learning whose common steps are ... [more ▼]

This paper considers the general problem of image classification without using any prior knowledge about image classes. We study variants of a method based on supervised learning whose common steps are the extraction of random subwindows described by raw pixel intensity values and the use of ensemble of extremely randomized trees to directly classify images or to learn image features. The influence of method parameters and variants is thoroughly evaluated so as to provide baselines and guidelines for future studies. Detailed results are provided on 80 publicly available datasets that depict very diverse types of images (more than 3800 image classes and over 1.5 million images). [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of local outliers in spatial multivariate data
Ernst, Marie ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Outlier detection techniques in spatial data should allow to identify two types of outliers: global and local ones. Local outliers typically have non-spatial attributes that strongly differ from those ... [more ▼]

Outlier detection techniques in spatial data should allow to identify two types of outliers: global and local ones. Local outliers typically have non-spatial attributes that strongly differ from those observed on their neighbors. Detecting local outliers requires to be able to work locally, on neighborhoods, in order to take into account the spatial dependence between the statistical units under consideration, even though the outlyingness is usually measured on the non-spatial variables. Many procedures have been outlined in the literature, but their number reduces when one wants to deal with multivariate non-spatial attributes. In this paper, focus is on the multivariate context. A review of existing procedures is done. A new approach, based on a two-step improvement of an existing one, is also designed and compared with the benchmarked methods by means of examples and simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of WASP-85Ab: a hot Jupiter in a visual binary system
Brown, D. J. A.; Anderson, D. R.; Armstrong, D. J. et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

We report the discovery of the transiting hot Jupiter exoplanet WASP-85Ab. Using a combined analysis of spectroscopic and photometric data, we determine that the planet orbits its host star every 2.66 ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of the transiting hot Jupiter exoplanet WASP-85Ab. Using a combined analysis of spectroscopic and photometric data, we determine that the planet orbits its host star every 2.66 days, and has a mass of 1.09+/-0.03 M_Jup and a radius of 1.44+/-0.02 R_Jup. The host star is of G5 spectral type, with magnitude V=11.2, and lies 125+/-80 pc distant. We find stellar parameters of T_eff=5685+/-65 K, super-solar metallicity ([Fe/H]=0.08+/-0.10), M_star=1.04+/-0.07 M_sun and R_star=0.96+/-0.13 R_sun. The system has a K-dwarf binary companion, WASP-85B, at a separation of approximately 1.5". The close proximity of this companion leads to contamination of our photometry, decreasing the apparent transit depth that we account for during our analysis. Without this correction, we find the depth to be 50 percent smaller, the stellar density to be 32 percent smaller, and the planet radius to be 18 percent smaller than the true value. Many of our radial velocity observations are also contaminated; these are disregarded when analysing the system in favour of the uncontaminated HARPS observations, as they have reduced semi-amplitudes that lead to underestimated planetary masses. We find a long-term trend in the binary position angle, indicating a misalignment between the binary and orbital planes. WASP observations of the system show variability with a period of 14.64 days, indicative of rotational modulation caused by stellar activity. Analysis of the Ca ii H+K lines shows strong emission that implies that both binary components are strongly active. We find that the system is likely to be less than a few Gyr old. WASP-85 lies in the field of view of K2 Campaign 1. Long cadence observations of the planet clearly show the planetary transits, along with the signature of stellar variability. Analysis of the K2 data, both long and short cadence, is ongoing. [less ▲]

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See detailLettre d'information du projet Dacefi-Synthèse & réalisations majeures
Meunier, Quentin; Morin, Amélie; Moumbougou, Carl et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Cette dernière lettre d'information du projet présente le bilan de ses réalisations et les avancées importantes du Gabon en termes de foresterie communautaire

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See detailProjet DACEFI 2. Principes fondateurs d'une forêt communautaire au Gabon. Outils de vulgarisation et de sensibilisation.
Meunier, Quentin; Boldrini, Sylvie; Larzillière, Adélaïde et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Faisant suite à une première phase (2006-2008), le projet pilote Développement d’Alternatives Communautaires à l’Exploitation Forestière Illégale (DACEFI-2, de 2010 à 2014) s’emploie à tester au Gabon la ... [more ▼]

Faisant suite à une première phase (2006-2008), le projet pilote Développement d’Alternatives Communautaires à l’Exploitation Forestière Illégale (DACEFI-2, de 2010 à 2014) s’emploie à tester au Gabon la mise en oeuvre des premières forêts communautaires. Un de ses objectifs majeurs consiste à tester le concept de foresterie communautaire au sein de plusieurs sites partenaires et de témoigner de l’expérience acquise afin que le Ministère en charge des Forêts adapte le cadre réglementaire. Quatre textes majeurs régissent la foresterie communautaire au Gabon, une loi (n°16/01), un décret d’application (n°1028/PR/MEFEPEPEN) et deux arrêtés (n°018/MEF/SG/DGF/DFC et n°106/MEFEPRN). Ils encadrent le processus de création d’une forêt communautaire. Afin de les rendre accessibles à un plus grand nombre, le projet DACEFI-2 s’est proposé de développer plusieurs supports de vulgarisation à destination des agents des Eaux et Forêts et des villageois. En éditant et en diffusant une série de posters, de films ou encore de bandes dessinées, le projet a contribué à faire connaître dans les provinces de l’Ogooué-Ivindo et du Moyen-Ogooué, l’esprit de ces textes légaux qui visent à favoriser le développement des communautés locales. Ce document de capitalisation présente une compilation des outils développés par les équipes du projet pour mener à bien cette campagne de sensibilisation. Nous abordons la gestion forestière durable par le prisme de la foresterie communautaire en évoquant l’esprit de la loi et les enjeux de la foresterie sociale. Nous proposons également une série de recommandations, basées sur notre expérience au Gabon, afin d’optimiser l’efficacité des communautés engagées dans ce processus. [less ▲]

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See detailAspects juridiques de la fiscalité du logement en Wallonie
Bahi, Sacha; Bianchet, Bruno ULg; Farah, Jihad ULg et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Ce numéro des « Notes de recherche » synthétise un des volets d’une étude dont l’objet est « la fiscalité relative au logement et l’aménagement du territoire ». Or, afin de bien appréhender les tenants et ... [more ▼]

Ce numéro des « Notes de recherche » synthétise un des volets d’une étude dont l’objet est « la fiscalité relative au logement et l’aménagement du territoire ». Or, afin de bien appréhender les tenants et les aboutissants de cette causalité et, surtout, de formuler des recommandations et propositions relatives au système fiscal en regard d’objectifs territoriaux, une analyse approfondie du cadre juridique s’avère indispensable. Cet examen constitue, en soi, un tout cohérent auquel pourra se référer le praticien de la gestion territoriale. La présente réflexion vise ainsi à présenter les divers mécanismes juridiques qui constituent des impôts frappant les biens immobiliers affectés au logement en Wallonie. L’étude s’intéresse principalement au territoire géographique wallon et non pas au seul pouvoir taxateur : « Région wallonne ». La précision est d’importance, a fortiori depuis l’entrée en vigueur de la sixième Réforme de l’État qui élargit considérablement la compétence du législateur wallon en la matière. Sont donc traités dans ce cadre tant les impôts fédéraux que régionaux, sans oublier les diverses « taxes locales » propres à chacune des communes et provinces de Wallonie. Les impôts directs, comme les impôts indirects seront analysés. Partant de ce balayage législatif de lege lata, la réflexion s’efforce de faire ressortir les diverses nuances politiques qui se dégagent des impôts analysés. Le doigt est tantôt mis sur les lacunes légistiques des textes, tantôt sur les critiques jurisprudentielles adressées aux taxes, tantôt encore, sur les potentialités qu’offriraient la redéfinition ou le recalibrage d’un mécanisme existant. L’étude vise, lorsqu’une possibilité lui est laissée, à formuler des propositions de lege feranda afin d’affermir la légalité de certains mécanismes fiscaux et d’améliorer l’utilisation qui est faite de ceux-ci à l’heure actuelle. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mora débitoris chez Charles de Méan (esquisse)
Lagasse, Benoît ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

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See detailPremières mises en liberté avant jugement devant la Cour pénale internationale
Deprez, Christophe ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Ce billet évoque les premières libérations avant jugement intervenues devant la Cour pénale internationale (octobre 2014). Après avoir été soumis à un comité de lecture, il a été publié sur le 'blogue' de ... [more ▼]

Ce billet évoque les premières libérations avant jugement intervenues devant la Cour pénale internationale (octobre 2014). Après avoir été soumis à un comité de lecture, il a été publié sur le 'blogue' de la Clinique de droit international pénal et humanitaire de l'Université de Laval. [less ▲]

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See detailCorporate board attributes and conditional accounting conservatism: Evidence from French firms
Boussaid, Nabila ULg; Sougné, Danielle ULg; Hamza, Taher

E-print/Working paper (2014)

In this paper we investigate the relationship between boards of directors’ attributes and conditional accounting conservatism in the French context. Using a pooled regression model to evaluate this ... [more ▼]

In this paper we investigate the relationship between boards of directors’ attributes and conditional accounting conservatism in the French context. Using a pooled regression model to evaluate this relationship for the period 2009-2012, our empirical results can be summarized as follows. Firstly, greater board activity encourages more conservative reporting in financial statements. Secondly, greater board size diminishes conditional accounting conservatism. Lastly, there is a positive relationship between gender diversity and conservatism. To ensure robustness we have calculated our results using alternative measures of accounting conservatism, namely time series and accrual-based measures in addition to asymmetric timeliness of earnings. These findings suggest that boards of directors’ attributes are an important factor in determining the financial reporting quality of French firms. [less ▲]

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See detailMOLIERE PROJECT - Belgian National Report
Naedenoen, Frédéric ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

This document aims at introducing the restructuring phenomena in Belgium. It makes part of a larger project (called the MOLIERE project) undertaken by eleven European countries gathered to analyse ... [more ▼]

This document aims at introducing the restructuring phenomena in Belgium. It makes part of a larger project (called the MOLIERE project) undertaken by eleven European countries gathered to analyse restructurings. This national document follows a common reporting format: an introduction of the complex Belgian restructuring frameworks (1), a presentation of the main actors involved in the process (2), a synthesis of the measures created to anticipate change (3) and a synthesis of the measures established to manage change (4). [less ▲]

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See detailLe nouveau cadre d’action en matière de climat et d’énergie à l’horizon 2030
Habran, Maxime ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Cette note a pour but de fournir un éclairage sur le nouveau cadre d'action européen en matière de climat et d'énergie

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See detailIllustration du rôle de la Cour constitutionnelle : si l'utilité publique n'est plus établie, les propriétaires d'un bien exproprié doivent recevoir leur bien en retour
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Les législateurs sont-ils tout puissants ? Certes ils sont à la source de l’ensemble des règles de droit dans le pays puisque ce sont eux qui adoptent les lois, les décrets et les ordonnances et que les ... [more ▼]

Les législateurs sont-ils tout puissants ? Certes ils sont à la source de l’ensemble des règles de droit dans le pays puisque ce sont eux qui adoptent les lois, les décrets et les ordonnances et que les arrêtés et règlements élaborés par les gouvernements et les administrations doivent les respecter. Mais les lois, les décrets et les ordonnances doivent aussi se conformer à des règles supérieures qui s’imposent à eux, notamment à celles qui garantissent nos droits fondamentaux, et ce sous le contrôle de la Cour constitutionnelle. Un tout récent arrêt, portant le n° 132/2014 et prononcé le 25 septembre 2014 , en fournit une illustration assez simple en matière d’expropriation. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de Baetens (Jan), Pour en finir avec la poésie dite minimaliste
Demoulin, Laurent ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Il s'agit d'un compte rendu de l'ouvrage de Jan Baetens intitulé "Pour en finir avec la poésie dite minimaliste" paru sur le site Contextes à la page http://contextes.revues.org/5982.

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See detailL-surface and V-valley for optimal anisotropic 2D smoothing
Frasso, Gianluca ULg; Paul, Eilers

E-print/Working paper (2014)

We present the L-surface as an attractive generalization of the L-curve framework for the selection of the optimal smoothing parameters in two dimensional applications. It preserves the desirable features ... [more ▼]

We present the L-surface as an attractive generalization of the L-curve framework for the selection of the optimal smoothing parameters in two dimensional applications. It preserves the desirable features of its unidimensional analogous. The optimal amount of smoothing is indicated by the pair of parameters located in the point of maximum (Gaussian) curvature. Locate this point on a discrete parametric surface can be not straightforward. We introduce the V-valley as a simplified selection criterion based on distance minimization. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-period vehicle assignment problem with stochastic load availability
Crama, Yves ULg; Pironet, Thierry ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

In this research, we want to investigate optimization techniques for a generic load assignment problem including a limited fleet of vehicles within a full-truck-load (FTL) multi-period setting including ... [more ▼]

In this research, we want to investigate optimization techniques for a generic load assignment problem including a limited fleet of vehicles within a full-truck-load (FTL) multi-period setting including forecasts on load availability. Several policies are generated from simple heuristics through state of the art approaches such as consensus and restricted expectation algorithms up to the optimization of a subtree of scenarios. Moreover, myopic and a-posteriori deterministic optimizations (including no or fully revealed information) set bounds for policies performance comparisons. Tests are performed for different graphs sizes and sparsity, several distribution laws and number of loads. Performances are compared statistically over paired samples. The robustness of performing policies against a false valuation of the probability distribution is also analyzed. [less ▲]

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See detailRéveillez-vous, le monde vous attend…
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; Destiné, Jacques ULg et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Par-delà le brouillard des temps présents, un message d’optimisme, de volontarisme, de foi en l’avenir et en la vie, conduisant à sept principes, ou suggestions d’action, faciles à mettre en œuvre.

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Peer Reviewed
See detailEstimating the out-of-sample predictive ability of trading rules: a robust bootstrap approach
Hambuckers, julien ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

In this paper, we estimate the out-of-sample predictive ability of a set of trading rules. Usually, this ability is estimated using a rolling-window sample-splitting scheme, true out-of-sample data being ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we estimate the out-of-sample predictive ability of a set of trading rules. Usually, this ability is estimated using a rolling-window sample-splitting scheme, true out-of-sample data being rarely available. We argue that this method makes a poor use of the available information and creates data mining possibilities. Instead, we introduce an alternative bootstrap approach, based on the .632 bootstrap principle. This method enables to build in-sample and out-of-sample bootstrap data sets that do not overlap and exhibit the same time dependencies. We illustrate our methodology on IBM and Microsoft daily stock prices, where we compare 11 trading rules specifications. For the data sets considered, two different filter rule specifications have the highest out-of-sample mean excess returns. However, all tested rules cannot beat a simple buy-and-hold strategy when trading at a daily frequency. [less ▲]

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See detailEmbargo russe sur les aliments européens : l'Europe doit montrer l'exemple
Habran, Maxime ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Cette note a pour but d’apporter des éclaircissements sur les mesures en matière de politique agricole commune prises par l’Union européenne

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See detailDe la crise à l’entreprise, en passant par toi…
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

De la crise à l’entreprise, en passant par toi… est une invitation à l’action, à la prise de responsabilité, à la création responsable de valeur économique et à la recherche obstinée de croissance ... [more ▼]

De la crise à l’entreprise, en passant par toi… est une invitation à l’action, à la prise de responsabilité, à la création responsable de valeur économique et à la recherche obstinée de croissance rentable. Oui! Notre monde vient d’échapper à un effondrement systémique dont 1929 n’aurait constitué qu’un aimable préambule. Oui ! L’entreprise est le seul acteur social créateur de richesse économique et la seule solution au mal qui se répand. Oui ! Il est extrêmement difficile de changer quoi que ce soit sur terre et d’apprendre à dire « non ! » En cas d’échec, le coût est connu : licenciement, exil, condamnation à mort ! [less ▲]

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See detailLettre d'information trimestrielle n° 15 du projet DACEFI 2
Boldrini, Sylvie; Meunier, Quentin; Moumbogou, Carl et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

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See detailTowards a system of concept in GP/FM. Part I towards a specific indexation system. working draft
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Towards a system of concept on general practice / family medicine Part 1 Towards a specific indexation system in GP/FM Status of this document ; preliminary draft, not for diffusion ... [more ▼]

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Towards a system of concept on general practice / family medicine Part 1 Towards a specific indexation system in GP/FM Status of this document ; preliminary draft, not for diffusion Intended audience : Members of the board of the PhD thesis of Marc Jamoulle, department of general practice, Liege University and experts in the field contacted by the author Background :Thousands of general practitioners/ family doctors are gathering each year in local, national or international congresses. They are exchanging thoughts, researches and methods through thousands of communications in various formats; posters, oral communications, workshops and so on. Although this huge collection of bottom-up knowledge is sometimes available through Internet sites, there is no specific indexation system allowing a real knowledge management of the exposed works. Consequently the information could not be reached, which don’t favor the exchange between researchers. The absence of a common indexation system is also a problem to organize the congresses and the participants have always difficulties to find communications relevant of their interest. The technology of semantic web and Linked data have emerged as a future solution to exchange data distributed in many languages between so many providers, the family physicians, spread around the globe. The considerable development of medical ontologies demonstrates the vitality of this field of discovery. Aim of the thesis; To find the best way to identify the main concepts effectively used by practicing GPs by the development of a system of classification embedded in the International classification of Primary Care aiming at retrieval of clinical and non-clinical issues addressed by the authors in their communications To propose a mapped terminology to this classification systems, in other words an ontology of GP/FM, to participle to a linked data based automatic or semi-automatic indexation of knowledge in GP/FM and its implementation in the realm of the semantic web. Content of the part 1 : the first steps towards a global classification system in GP/FM are related as well as previous experiences and difficulties with usual coding systems. The new information technology tools for information management are concisely described which permit the understanding of their importance in future research networks of knowledge in G/FM A comparison of the coding process and results of 6 congress of GP/FM in several countries and 4 languages has been performed to examine the internal reproducibility of the classifying system proposed. Next steps of the thesis are discussed of which first of them would be the constitution of an International research group. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrouvailles à vélo avec Dick Annegarn
Demoulin, Laurent ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Le nouveau CD de Dick Annegarn, Vélo va (2014), offre à son auditeur, à travers un bel échantillon de dix chansons, un aperçu des différentes facettes de l’art de l’auteur-compositeur-interprète.

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See detailSome misunderstood or unknown tricks (IX) (LaTeX)
Merciadri, Luca ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

We describe here how to display date & time in a standard format, write (draw) dash integrals, number rows in tables, use unhabitual punctuation marks: interrobang and percontation point, draw dependency ... [more ▼]

We describe here how to display date & time in a standard format, write (draw) dash integrals, number rows in tables, use unhabitual punctuation marks: interrobang and percontation point, draw dependency arrows, distinguish between ConTeXt, LuaTeX, teTeX and XeTeX. The last section gives a LaTeX-related crossword puzzle. [less ▲]

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See detailPresidential election in Turkey: a wide range of intricate challenges ahead of the next president
Sisu, Madalina; Lika, Liridon ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

On 10 August 2014, Turkey will hold the first round of presidential election which are of specific importance, as its results will shape the country’s both domestic politics and external relations. This ... [more ▼]

On 10 August 2014, Turkey will hold the first round of presidential election which are of specific importance, as its results will shape the country’s both domestic politics and external relations. This paper discusses the key challenges which Turkey’s next president must undertake. The domestic challenges range from revision of Constitution, Kurdish peace process and economic growth to polarization of society, freedom of judiciary, separation of powers and civil liberties. In the external relations area, the principal challenges are the worsening of country’s relations with its neighbours, security threats and the stalemate of the EU integration. Several domestic and external challenges are inter-related: for instance, the freedom of judiciary, separation of powers and civil liberties affect the EU integration process; the political uncertainty relates to economic growth and foreign investments; the Kurdish peace process impacts on the external security issues; the economic factors influence the relations with the Kurdistan Regional Government and Iraq’s central government; the Syrian crisis raises new challenges with regard to the Syrian refugees in Turkey. Therefore, addressing Turkey’s current domestic and external challenges will be a long, puzzling and often conflicting-results process. [less ▲]

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See detailRecueil de réglementation interne des principaux partis allemands, belges et britanniques
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Le présent recueil compile des extraits de la réglementation interne des principaux partis allemands, belges et britanniques. Cette documentation vient principalement appuyer le chapitre 1er de la ... [more ▼]

Le présent recueil compile des extraits de la réglementation interne des principaux partis allemands, belges et britanniques. Cette documentation vient principalement appuyer le chapitre 1er de la deuxième partie de notre étude sur le droit électoral et le principe d’égalité (à paraître en septembre 2014 aux éditions Bruylant) dans laquelle nous avons notamment étudié une partie du droit interne de certaines formations politiques. [less ▲]

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See detailEn attendant Toussaint
Demoulin, Laurent ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Présentation et analyse de deux courtes pièces, Rideau et Ni l'un ni l'autre, écrites par Jean-Philippe Toussaint en 1981, quand il était un jeune auteur inconnu influencé par Samuel Beckett.

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See detailLes métiers du développement durable
Cornet, Annie ULg; dubois, valérie

E-print/Working paper (2014)

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See detailProcedural rights in antitrust proceedings
Muheme, Daniel ULg; Neyrinck, Norman ULg; Petit, Nicolas ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

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See detailLa biblioteca nel romanzo moderno/2. Archetipo, tema, cronotopo
de Seta, Ilaria ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg)
See detailLa biblioteca nel romanzo moderno. 1 Manzoni, Nievo, Pirandello e Tozzi
de Seta, Ilaria ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

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See detailShort Prime Quadratizations of Cubic Negative Monomials
Crama, Yves ULg; Rodriguez Heck, Elisabeth ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Pseudo-Boolean functions naturally model problems in a number of different areas such as computer science, statistics, economics, operations research or computer vision, among others. Pseudo-Boolean ... [more ▼]

Pseudo-Boolean functions naturally model problems in a number of different areas such as computer science, statistics, economics, operations research or computer vision, among others. Pseudo-Boolean optimization (PBO) is NP-hard, even for quadratic polynomial objective functions. However, much progress has been done in finding exact and heuristic algorithms for the quadratic case. Quadratizations are techniques aimed at reducing a general PBO problem to a quadratic polynomial one. Quadratizing single monomials is particularly interesting because it allows quadratizing any pseudo-Boolean function by termwise quadratization. A characterization of short quadratizations for negative monomials has been provided. In this report we present a proof of this characterization for the case of cubic monomials, which requires a different analysis than the case of higher degree. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of the service start time for an elementary shortest path problem with time windows
Arda, Yasemin ULg; Crama, Yves ULg; Kucukaydin, Hande ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

We investigate an elementary shortest path problem with resource constraints where a single capacitated vehicle, initially located at a depot, must serve a set of customers while respecting their ... [more ▼]

We investigate an elementary shortest path problem with resource constraints where a single capacitated vehicle, initially located at a depot, must serve a set of customers while respecting their individual time windows. When the vehicle visits a customer, it delivers the customer's demand and collects a revenue in return for the delivery. The vehicle can start its trip at any desired time. The transportation cost is a function of both the total distance traveled and the duration of the assigned trip. The objective is to determine the service start time from the depot, the subset of customers to be served, and the trip to be performed so as to minimize the total loss, which is calculated as the di erence between the transportation cost and the revenue collected from the customers. We develop two exact dynamic programming algorithms which can deal with an in nite number of Pareto-optimal states arising from the fact that the starting time and the duration of the trip act like continuous decision variables. We report computational results obtained with these algorithms and with a faster heuristic for the elementary shortest path problem. We also examine the performance of these algorithms when they are used to solve the pricing subproblem arising in the framework of a column generation algorithm for a related vehicle routing problem with time windows. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival 2014
Sacré, Robert ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Compte rendu du NOLA Jazz & Heritage Festival avril-mai 2014 , avec photos

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See detailChina, 1978-2013: from one Plenum to another. Reflections on hopes and constraints for reform in the Xi Jingping era
Florence, Eric ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Why is it so difficult to talk about China in a nuanced and contrasting manner without falling back on superlatives and generalisations? In about thirty years, China’s GDP per capita has multiplied by ... [more ▼]

Why is it so difficult to talk about China in a nuanced and contrasting manner without falling back on superlatives and generalisations? In about thirty years, China’s GDP per capita has multiplied by eight. From a marginal economic power during the Maoist period (1949-1978), China is now ranked tenth in terms of global economic weight. “Wealth and power” (fu qiang) is the expression that embodies China’s quest for modernity since the second half of the 19th century, when China was still under the yoke of the West. This ambition is still at the heart of the “Chinese dream of rejuvenation of the Chinese nation” dear to Xi Jinping, which he set out during the Third Plenum of the 18th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. But focusing only on this vision of “wealth and power” takes us back to one of the most common ways of representing China: reducing the ongoing socio-economic changes and dynamics to a set of numeric values, ultimately reified and homogenised. The increased power and internationalisation of the Chinese economy has prompted a combination of worry and enthusiasm. What does this imply about the paradigm shift in the way we portray this country? Perhaps it is still hard to leave behind the image of a subordinate, poor and voiceless China and consider the Chinese people as, at least, our equals. [less ▲]

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See detailL’Université de Liège pendant la guerre 1914-1918
Bechet, Christophe ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Histoire de l'Université de Liège pendant la Grande Guerre, axée principalement sur le drame de la place du 20 août et l'occupation des locaux par l'armée allemande.

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See detailFonck meurt premier comme devant
Bechet, Christophe ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Cet article revient sur le mythe du cavalier Fonck, premier soldat belge tué le 4 août 1914, sur la route Thimister-Battice

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See detailHalf a century of French organizational sociology: methodological roots, compositionist branches
Dubois, Christophe ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Now that 50 years have gone by since the publication of The Bureaucratic Phenomenon (French title: Le phénomène bureaucratique, 1963) by Michel Crozier, what is the legacy bequeathed by the sociology of ... [more ▼]

Now that 50 years have gone by since the publication of The Bureaucratic Phenomenon (French title: Le phénomène bureaucratique, 1963) by Michel Crozier, what is the legacy bequeathed by the sociology of organizations, in France and elsewhere, to today’s researchers? This contribution considers the premises of this methodology in order to establish two important achievements: the “decomposition” of the notions of organization, State and market; and the distinction of three dimensions of organizations, i.e. their managerial discourse, formal and informal structures. This article ends by considering one contemporary challenge this tradition of research has to face: how to account for the mechanisms of collective action, in order to take part in its composition? [less ▲]

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See detailLes parlements peuvent-ils encore valider les pouvoirs de leurs élus?
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Les élections du 25 mai 2014 ont été suivies de diverses contestations sur certains aspects de leur déroulement, spécialement au stade de leur dépouillement. C'est l'occasion de faire le point sur la ... [more ▼]

Les élections du 25 mai 2014 ont été suivies de diverses contestations sur certains aspects de leur déroulement, spécialement au stade de leur dépouillement. C'est l'occasion de faire le point sur la prérogative des assemblées législatives belges de vérifier elles-mêmes la validité des pouvoirs de leurs membres. [less ▲]

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See detailThe binary near-Earth asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 - An observational constraint on its orbital stability
Scheirich, P.; Pravec, P.; Jacobson, S. A. et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Using our photometric observations taken between April 1996 and January 2013 and other published data, we derive properties of the binary near-Earth asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 including new measurements ... [more ▼]

Using our photometric observations taken between April 1996 and January 2013 and other published data, we derive properties of the binary near-Earth asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 including new measurements constraining evolution of the mutual orbit with potential consequences for the entire binary asteroid population. We also refined previously determined values of parameters of both components, making 1996 FG3 one of the most well understood binary asteroid systems. We determined the orbital vector with a substantially greater accuracy than before and we also placed constraints on a stability of the orbit. Specifically, the ecliptic longitude and latitude of the orbital pole are 266{\deg} and -83{\deg}, respectively, with the mean radius of the uncertainty area of 4{\deg}, and the orbital period is 16.1508 +\- 0.0002 h (all uncertainties correspond to 3sigma). We looked for a quadratic drift of the mean anomaly of the satellite and obtained a value of 0.04 +\- 0.20 deg/yr^2, i.e., consistent with zero. The drift is substantially lower than predicted by the pure binary YORP (BYORP) theory of McMahon and Scheeres (McMahon, J., Scheeres, D. [2010]. Icarus 209, 494-509) and it is consistent with the theory of an equilibrium between BYORP and tidal torques for synchronous binary asteroids as proposed by Jacobson and Scheeres (Jacobson, S.A., Scheeres, D. [2011]. ApJ Letters, 736, L19). Based on the assumption of equilibrium, we derived a ratio of the quality factor and tidal Love number of Q/k = 2.4 x 10^5 uncertain by a factor of five. We also derived a product of the rigidity and quality factor of mu Q = 1.3 x 10^7 Pa using the theory that assumes an elastic response of the asteroid material to the tidal forces. This very low value indicates that the primary of 1996 FG3 is a 'rubble pile', and it also calls for a re-thinking of the tidal energy dissipation in close asteroid binary systems. [less ▲]

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See detailFederico García Lorca en Lieja
Francois, Jeromine ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

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See detailLettre d'information trimestrielle n° 14 du projet DACEFI 2
Meunier, Quentin; Moumbogou, Carl; Boldrini, Sylvie et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

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See detailThe Macroeconomics of PAYG Pension Schemes in an Aging Society
Artige, Lionel ULg; Cavenaile, Laurent; Pestieau, Pierre ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
See detailSome misunderstood or unknown tricks (VIII) and Turing-completeness (LaTeX)
Merciadri, Luca ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

We will begin by exposing new tricks, i.e. how to 1. write ‘closed’ square roots, 2. insert blank pages, 3. ask the reader to turn the page, 4. write bold words in an index, 5. divide a cell by a diagonal ... [more ▼]

We will begin by exposing new tricks, i.e. how to 1. write ‘closed’ square roots, 2. insert blank pages, 3. ask the reader to turn the page, 4. write bold words in an index, 5. divide a cell by a diagonal, 6. draw ‘product integrals,’ 7. understand what happens when \mathcal has a lower-case letter argument. We will then consider an uncommon example of what one can do with LaTeX, in link with its Turing completeness. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailHexis
Durand, Pascal ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Définition et discussion du concept d'« Hexis » dans la sociologie de Pierre Bourdieu.

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Peer Reviewed
See detailIllusio
Durand, Pascal ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Définition et discussion du concept d'« Illusio » dans la sociologie de Pierre Bourdieu.

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Peer Reviewed
See detailCapital symbolique
Durand, Pascal ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Présentation et discussion du concept de « Capital symbolique » dans la sociologie de Pierre Bourdieu.

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See detailProtecting Assets Under Non-Parametric Market Conditions
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULg; Pahud de Mortanges, Charles ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Under non-parametric market conditions, investors usually become more concerned about the return of their money than about the return on their money. Protecting assets becomes the surest if not the only ... [more ▼]

Under non-parametric market conditions, investors usually become more concerned about the return of their money than about the return on their money. Protecting assets becomes the surest if not the only path to survival and growth. High frequency trading systems, over leveraged shadow entities, flash crashes, and stealth central bank actions, to name a few, contribute to create a “Rumsfeldian” type of world in which decision makers have to cope not only with “Known knowns” – things they know that they know – but also with “Unknown unknowns” – things they don’t know that they don’t know! The goal of this paper is to explore such a conceptual model of the “Unknown” and to derive from it a concise and coherent set of battle-tested heuristics aimed at designing effective investment strategies to protect assets. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailA new methodological approach for error distributions selection in Finance
Hambuckers, julien ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

In this article, we propose a robust methodology to select the most appropriate error distribution candidate, in a classical multiplicative heteroscedastic model. In a first step, unlike to the ... [more ▼]

In this article, we propose a robust methodology to select the most appropriate error distribution candidate, in a classical multiplicative heteroscedastic model. In a first step, unlike to the traditional approach, we don't use any GARCH-type estimation of the conditional variance. Instead, we propose to use a recently developed nonparametric procedure (Mercurio and Spokoiny, 2004): the Local Adaptive Volatility Estimation (LAVE). The motivation for using this method is to avoid a possible model misspecification for the conditional variance. In a second step, we suggest a set of estimation and model selection procedures (Berk-Jones tests, kernel density-based selection, censored likelihood score, coverage probability) based on the so-obtained residuals. These methods enable to assess the global fit of a given distribution as well as to focus on its behavior in the tails. Finally, we illustrate our methodology on three time series (UBS stock returns, BOVESPA returns and EUR/USD exchange rates). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (25 ULg)