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Nous nous demandons pourquoi il est difficile d'y répondre et ... [more ▼]Dans cet article, nous apportons des éléments de réponse à la question générale suivante : "Que signifie bien comprendre en mathématiques ?" Nous nous demandons pourquoi il est difficile d'y répondre et apportons une piste de solution en distinguant les activités de production de celles de reproduction. De plus, nous abordons le problème étudié d'un point de vue aussi bien local que global. Enfin, nous nous interrogeons sur l'incompréhension en mathématiques en proposant une typologie, en repérant des causes possibles d'incompréhension et en donnant quelques conseils pratiques. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Back to materialism Reflections on Marx’s labour, praxis, cooperative and libertarian socialism in the 19th centuryFrère, Bruno E-print/Working paper (2017)From Marx to Althusser, the materialist approach has tended to assume that individuals (that is, workers, proletarians and other social actors), unconsciously reproduce the social structures of capitalism ... [more ▼]From Marx to Althusser, the materialist approach has tended to assume that individuals (that is, workers, proletarians and other social actors), unconsciously reproduce the social structures of capitalism which alienate them. It is assumed that individuals accept the conditions forced upon them and no longer seek to rebel against a world which substantially impoverishes their labour, their spirit and their creativity. In this paper, I will try to show that by dint of favouring almost exclusively Marx's concept of alienation, there is a considerable risk that materialist thought will adopt only a negative path. Whilst I acknowledge Marx’s significance to materialism, I wish to argue that his stance should be combined with that of the anarchist and libertarian French thinker Proudhon. Proudhon has succeeded in presenting a conception of the worker as more than just alienated. Workers can also cooperate and experience a reciprocity seemingly at odds with the character of capitalism. Under Proudhon’s influence materialism takes a positive turn, enabling us to avoid falling into the utopianism that the theory of social economy employs to critique capitalism – a utopianism that renders its critique even less effective than that of Marx. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 56 (1 ULg) How to account for new forms of resistance to domination: An argument for a materialist renewal in European social theoryFrère, Bruno ; Tulle, EmmanuelleE-print/Working paper (2017)Many significant intellectual developments have taken place in 20th century European social theories. Notably the first Frankfurt School and Bourdieu’s work have successfully shown how workers, social ... [more ▼]Many significant intellectual developments have taken place in 20th century European social theories. Notably the first Frankfurt School and Bourdieu’s work have successfully shown how workers, social actors, etc. are alienated or dominated by capitalist social structures. But according to Habermas, neither perspective successfully allows for the possibility that people could contribute to their own emancipation. The emergence of new forms of social resistance to domination such as those embodied by the Indignados, Anonymous, Femen, the practitioners of alternative economy, movements of unemployed people or illegals compels us to envisage the possibility for emancipation, but how? In this paper we explore opportunities for accounting for this by considering the work of a range of other European social theorists, more specifically Boltanski whose critical intent is embodied in his pragmatic sociology, and evident in his coining and use of the concept of the world. In addition we will consider Latour’s own pragmatic stance as we believe that despite his disinterest in new social movements, his work, informed by pure immanence, might offer potential solutions. But we would argue that even in these innovations there is either a persistent tendency to imagine emancipation primarily as a return to some ideal state or a lack of critical engagement with alienation. In response, we propose a materialist renewal, which will lead us to ponder on the political role of sociologists. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 54 (2 ULg) Berge-acyclic multilinear 0-1 optimization problemsBuchheim, Christoph; Crama, Yves ; Rodriguez Heck, Elisabeth E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg) Vorzeitigkeit als Herausforderung beim Übersetzen narrativer TexteMünzberg, Franziska E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) Cellwise Robust regularized discriminant analysisAerts, Stéphanie ; Wilms, InesE-print/Working paper (2016)Quadratic and Linear Discriminant Analysis (QDA/LDA) are the most often applied classification rules under normality. In QDA, a separate covariance matrix is estimated for each group. If there are more ... [more ▼]Quadratic and Linear Discriminant Analysis (QDA/LDA) are the most often applied classification rules under normality. In QDA, a separate covariance matrix is estimated for each group. If there are more variables than observations in the groups, the usual estimates are singular and cannot be used anymore. Assuming homoscedasticity, as in LDA, reduces the number of parameters to estimate. This rather strong assumption is however rarely verified in practice. Regularized discriminant techniques that are computable in high-dimension and cover the path between the two extremes QDA and LDA have been proposed in the literature. However, these procedures rely on sample covariance matrices. As such, they become inappropriate in presence of cellwise outliers, a type of outliers that is very likely to occur in high-dimensional datasets. In this paper, we propose cellwise robust counterparts of these regularized discriminant techniques by inserting cellwise robust covariance matrices. Our methodology results in a family of discriminant methods that (i) are robust against outlying cells, (ii) cover the gap between LDA and QDA and (iii) are computable in high-dimension. The good performance of the new methods is illustrated through simulated and real data examples. As a by-product, visual tools are provided for the detection of outliers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg) Potential, opportunities and benefits of electric vehicles as frequency regulation resourcesGlavic, Mevludin ; Alvarado, FernandoE-print/Working paper (2016)Any imbalance between electric power supply and demand results in power system frequency deviations from its nominal value. Frequency regulation is one of the most important services that regional system ... [more ▼]Any imbalance between electric power supply and demand results in power system frequency deviations from its nominal value. Frequency regulation is one of the most important services that regional system operators perform to ensure reliable system operation. Traditional power supply sources such as generators are usually automatically modulated to help balance generation and demand by adjusting their output based in part on system frequency. As a result of the decreased inertia of the system caused by decommissioning of traditional power plants and the increase in the penetration of renewable energy sources, the increased use of demand side controls for the purpose of frequency regulation is receiving increased attention. Demand control can provide fast response to any imbalance. This opens up the possibility for Electric Vehicles (EVs) to be used as frequency regulation grid resources. This write-up discusses the potential, opportunities and benefit of doing so. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg) PREDetector 2.0: Online and Enhanced Version of the Prokaryotic Regulatory Elements Detector ToolTocquin, Pierre ; Naomé, Aymeric ; Jourdan, Samuel et alE-print/Working paper (2016)In the era that huge numbers of microbial genomes are being released in the databases, it becomes increasingly important to rapidly mine genes as well as predict the regulatory networks that control their ... [more ▼]In the era that huge numbers of microbial genomes are being released in the databases, it becomes increasingly important to rapidly mine genes as well as predict the regulatory networks that control their expression. To this end, we have developed an improved and online version of the PREDetector software aimed at identifying putative transcription factor-binding sites (TFBS) in bacterial genomes. The original philosophy of PREDetector 1.0 is maintained, i.e. to allow users to freely fix the DNA-motif screening parameters, and to provide a statistical means to estimate the reliability of the prediction output. This new version offers an interactive table as well as graphics to dynamically alter the main screening parameters with automatic update of the list of identified putative TFBS. PREDetector 2.0 also has the following additional options: (i) access to genome sequences from different databases, (ii) access to weight matrices from public repositories, (iii) visualization of the predicted hits in their genomic context, (iv) grouping of hits identified in the same upstream region, (v) possibility to store the performed jobs, and (vi) automated export of the results in various formats. PREDetector 2.0 is available at http://predetector.fsc.ulg.ac.be/. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULg) Tweeting is not investing! But...Choffray, Jean-Marie E-print/Working paper (2016)So, here we are! Hundreds of Tweets on The Art and Science of Investing to “show you the way”, to share some observations on the markets and their behavior, and to illustrate the key heuristics that I ... [more ▼]So, here we are! Hundreds of Tweets on The Art and Science of Investing to “show you the way”, to share some observations on the markets and their behavior, and to illustrate the key heuristics that I learned over the last twenty years. As, without any doubt, I am no Warren Buffett, feel free to disagree and develop you own “theory” of investing. Painful and solitary work... Success is at that price! And, based on what I did - and did not! - achieve, it shouldn’t be hard to do better... That’s my wish for you! [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 276 (65 ULg) The constant of recognizability is computable for primitive morphismsDurand, Fabien; Leroy, Julien E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg) Merger incentives under yardstick competition: A theoretical modelTeusch, Jonas E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg) The smallholder development by remittances of migrantsYao Namé, Juste Michel ; Lebailly, Philippe E-print/Working paper (2016)The following pages report the results of our survey conducted among (Malian, Senegalese and Mauritanian) Soninké migrants during the period of 14th to 4 December 2015, living in the social residences of ... [more ▼]The following pages report the results of our survey conducted among (Malian, Senegalese and Mauritanian) Soninké migrants during the period of 14th to 4 December 2015, living in the social residences of the former home Pinel (first home of migrant workers in France). This survey had to aim to discuss the implementation and use of a new tool to transfer the money in order to reduce use of informal channels, to promote financial inclusion, to finance smallholding and to develop entrepreneurship in rural by granting of credits medium or long term via Microfinance Institutions (IMF). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (11 ULg) Évaluation des compétences informationnelles des étudiants : trois enquêtes, un même constatPochet, Bernard E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 67 (2 ULg) La Cour pénale internationale et les entorses aux droits essentiels des personnes privées de libertéDeprez, Christophe E-print/Working paper (2016)Ce texte propose un bref aperçu des faiblesses de la pratique de la Cour pénale internationale en matière de privation de liberté.Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg) IT formulae for gamma target: mutual information and relative entropyArras, Benjamin ; Swan, Yvik E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg) LARCH: A package for estimating multinomial, nested, and cross-nested logit models that account for semi-aggregate dataNewman, Jeffrey; Lurkin, Virginie ; Garrow, LaurieE-print/Working paper (2016)We present a summary of important computational issues and opportunities that arise from the use of semi-aggregate data (where the explanatory data for choice scenarios are not necessarily unique for each ... [more ▼]We present a summary of important computational issues and opportunities that arise from the use of semi-aggregate data (where the explanatory data for choice scenarios are not necessarily unique for each decision-maker) in discrete choice models. This data feature is commonly encountered with large transactional databases that have limited consumer information, such as itinerary choice modeling. We developed a software package called Larch, written in Python and C++, to take advantage of this kind of data to greatly speed the estimation of discrete choice model parameters. Benchmarking experiments against Stata (a commonly used commercial package) and Biogeme (a commonly used freeware package) based on an industry dataset for airline itinerary choice modeling applications shows that the size of the input estimation files are 50 to 100 times larger in Stata and Biogeme, respectively. Estimation times are also much faster in Larch; e.g., for a small itinerary choice problem, a multinomial logit model estimated in Larch converged in less than one second whereas the same model took almost 15 seconds in Stata and more than three minutes in Biogeme. For more complex discrete choice models, such as the ordered generalized extreme value model, estimation times were two seconds in Larch and four to five days in Biogeme. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 79 (2 ULg) THE BEAT GENERATION Beat Generation - L’Anthologie Musicale - Hep Cats, Hipsters & Beatniks 1936-1962 (FREMEAUX & ASSOCIES)Sacré, Robert E-print/Working paper (2016)The Beat Generation - L’Anthologie Musicale - Compte rendu Hep Cats, Hipsters & Beatniks 1936-1962 FREMEAUX & ASSOCIESDetailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg) BIG NOISE - Un orchestre belge- Un nouvel hommage, en live, au JAZZ style NEW ORLEANSSacré, Robert E-print/Working paper (2016)Compte Rendu du 3è opus du groupe BIG NOISE, un orchestre belge qui remet à l'honneur le jazz traditionnel style NEW ORLEANS ( album IGLOO RECORDS)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg) L'environnement comme source d'inégalité? Pauvreté et désengagement citoyen dans la villeLejeune, Zoé E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 46 (19 ULg) The np- Control Charts with the Guaranteed In-Control PerformanceFaraz, Alireza ; Heuchenne, Cédric E-print/Working paper (2016)In this paper, we evaluate the in-control performance of np-control charts with estimated parameters. We then apply the bootstrap method to adjust the control charts’ limits to guarantee the desired in ... [more ▼]In this paper, we evaluate the in-control performance of np-control charts with estimated parameters. We then apply the bootstrap method to adjust the control charts’ limits to guarantee the desired in-control average run length (ARL0) value in monitoring stage. The adjusted limits ensure that ARL0 would take a value greater than the desired value (say, B) with a certain specified probability, that is Pr⁡(ARL_0>B)=1-ρ. We finally provide users with tables which with practitioners do not need to do bootstrapping Phase I data set to obtain the control limit thresholds. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 106 (1 ULg) WASP-86b and WASP-102b: super-dense versus bloated planetsFaedi, F.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Pollacco, D. et alE-print/Working paper (2016)We report the discovery of two transiting planetary systems: a super dense, sub-Jupiter mass planet WASP-86b (\mpl\ = 0.82 $\pm$ 0.06 \mj, \rpl\ = 0.63 $\pm$ 0.01 \rj), and a bloated, Saturn-like planet ... [more ▼]We report the discovery of two transiting planetary systems: a super dense, sub-Jupiter mass planet WASP-86b (\mpl\ = 0.82 $\pm$ 0.06 \mj, \rpl\ = 0.63 $\pm$ 0.01 \rj), and a bloated, Saturn-like planet WASP-102b (\mpl\ = 0.62 $\pm$ 0.04 \mj, \rpl\=1.27 $\pm$ 0.03 \rj). They orbit their host star every $\sim$5.03, and $\sim$2.71 days, respectively. The planet hosting WASP-86 is a F7 star (\teff\ = 6330$\pm$110 K, \feh\ = $+$0.23 $\pm$ 0.14 dex, and age $\sim$0.8--1~Gyr), WASP-102 is a G0 star (\teff\ = 5940$\pm$140 K, \feh\ = $-$0.09$\pm$ 0.19 dex, and age $\sim$1~Gyr). These two systems highlight the diversity of planetary radii over similar masses for giant planets with masses between Saturn and Jupiter. WASP-102b shows a larger than model-predicted radius, indicating that the planet is receiving a strong incident flux which contributes to the inflation of its radius. On the other hand, with a density of $\rho_{pl}$ = 3.24$\pm$~0.3~$\rho_{jup}$, WASP-86b is the densest gas giant planet among planets with masses in the range 0.05 \$