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See detailPublic Participation in Science and Technology and its Normative Context. The Participatory Turn’s Legacy and the European ‘Responsible Research and Innovation’ Emerging Framework
Macq, Hadrien ULg

Master's dissertation (2016)

Over the last two decades in Europe, science and technology’s unforeseen impacts led many STS scholars to plead for a ‘participatory turn’ in order to make our democracies more able to handle ... [more ▼]

Over the last two decades in Europe, science and technology’s unforeseen impacts led many STS scholars to plead for a ‘participatory turn’ in order to make our democracies more able to handle sociotechnical controversies. However, since the outset of this participatory turn, critiques sharing the common emphasize on the importance of taking into account the context in which public participation takes place have pointed to the risk of participation being either romanticized or instrumentalized. This thesis contributes to the critical scrutinizing of public participation in science and technology. By drawing on a set of qualitative data collection strategies and on a discourse analysis of collected materials, it investigates the normative context in which public participation is currently conceived and promoted at the European level and links it to historical perspectives in order to grasp the way in which the participatory turn’s legacy has been impacted. At it shows, far from being left opened-up, public participation is strongly closed-down by normative forces that lies in the context is which its promotion is currently taking place. As argued, public participation appears as instrumentalized in Horizon 2020 due to the increasing economization of policies and the steering of science and innovation toward tackling societal challenges. However, while acknowledging that these trends are characteristic of current developments, some longer ones are highlighted. Indeed, as this research suggests, the instrumentalization of public participation goes largely beyond the mere Horizon 2020. From the Sixth Framework Programme already, it appears that the normative context in which public participation in science and technology has been conceived and promoted has always tended to instrumentalized and to close down the deliberative governance of science. [less ▲]

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See detail« Analyse de l’implantation d’un protocole d’entraînement de la vitesse da ns une équipe de football »
Lombard, Gilles ULg

Master's dissertation (2016)

L’organisation défensive des équipes de football et la densité des joueurs ont significativement augmenté depuis 40 ans (Wallace et Norton, 2014). Ceci influence les qualités physiques des joueurs qui se ... [more ▼]

L’organisation défensive des équipes de football et la densité des joueurs ont significativement augmenté depuis 40 ans (Wallace et Norton, 2014). Ceci influence les qualités physiques des joueurs qui se doivent d’être plus rapides pour faire la différence. Aujourd’hui, la filière anaérobie alactique, bien que minoritaire au niveau quantitatif (Mohr et al., 2003), est la déterminante principale de la performance sur le plan physique (Cometti et al., 2001). Etant donné l’importance de cette qualité physique, nous avons voulu examiner si l’introduction d’un travail spécifique de la vitesse durant 8 semaines aurait un impact significatif sur la performance fonctionnelle du joueur de football. Méthodologie L’échantillon de 18 joueurs est réparti dans des groupes contrôle et expérimental. Trois tests de terrain sont utilisés pour mesurer l’évolution du paramètre anaérobique avant et après le protocole de 8 semaines : un test de vitesse sur 10 mètres (Wilson et al., 1993), un test de zigzags sur 20 mètres (Little et Williams, 2005) et un counter movement jump avec les bras (Slinde et al., 2008). Durant 8 semaines, le groupe expérimental bénéficie, en plus de l’entraînement normal, de deux séances hebdomadaire de 30 minutes visant le développement de la vitesse. A la fin de l'étude, aucun résultat significatif n'a été trouvé que ce soit au niveau de la vitesse sur courte distance, en course brisée ou de la détente en squat jump et counter movement jump. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic préalable à un contrat d'axe sur la ligne SNCB 40 Liège-Guillemins - Visé. Etude du potentiel de l'outil contrat d'axe en Wallonie et de la densification des gares de la ligne 40
Wilmotte, Pierre-François ULg

Master's dissertation (2016)

Le travail vise à alimenter la réflexion menée par le consortium Pluris - Trame - B. Bianchet à propos de l'élaboration d'un Schéma de Développement Territorial (SDT) pour l'arrondissement de Liège : d ... [more ▼]

Le travail vise à alimenter la réflexion menée par le consortium Pluris - Trame - B. Bianchet à propos de l'élaboration d'un Schéma de Développement Territorial (SDT) pour l'arrondissement de Liège : d'une part, étudier le potentiel des quartiers de gare en région liégeoise et, d'autre part, à voir si l'outil des "Contrats d'axe", développés en France, pourrait être pertinent dans le cadre wallon. La recherche a été appliquée à un axe ferroviaire de la région de Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailRelative positioning with Galileo E5 AltBOC code measurements
Deprez, Cécile ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Depuis une dizaine d’années, l’Europe développe son propre système de positionnement par satellites (ou Global Navigation Satellites System (GNSS) en anglais), connu sous le nom de Galileo. À la pointe de ... [more ▼]

Depuis une dizaine d’années, l’Europe développe son propre système de positionnement par satellites (ou Global Navigation Satellites System (GNSS) en anglais), connu sous le nom de Galileo. À la pointe de la technologie, les horloges atomiques embarquées à bord de ses satellites ainsi que les signaux transmis par ces derniers sont extrêmement prometteurs dans beaucoup de domaines. Bien que toujours en phase de test à l’heure actuelle, ce système a déjà conduit à de premières mesures, notamment en matière de positionnement. Parmi ces nouvelles technologies, un signal en particulier semble très prometteur : Galileo E5, aussi appelé Galileo E5a+b ou encore Galileo E5 AltBOC. Ce signal permet d’effectuer des mesures de code et de phase plus précises. Il est également moins sensible au multi-trajet. Grâce à ses caractéristiques innovantes, Galileo E5 devrait permettre d’estimer des positions avec une précision supérieure à tous les autres signaux utilisés aujourd’hui. Une étude comparative des positions estimées avec les systèmes GPS (américain) et Galileo (européen) sur leurs différentes fréquences émises (GPS L1, GPS L2, GPS L5 pour GPS et Galileo E1, Galileo E5a, Galileo E5b et Galileo E5 AltBOC pour Galileo) a été menée dans ce mémoire. Pour ce faire, une combinaison d’observations appelée double différence (DD) est utilisée sous différentes configurations (ligne de base nulle (ZB), courte (SB) et moyenne (MB)) de récepteurs GNSS. Les récepteurs utilisés appartiennent à l’Université de Liège (2 récepteurs Trimble NetR9, 1 récepteur Septentrio XS et un récepteur Septentrio X4). Il ressort de cette étude que Galileo E5 AltBOC présente les observations les plus précises (en ZB, toutes sources d’erreurs éliminées). L’analyse démontre également qu’une précision de l’ordre de quelques décimètres sur la position à déterminer peut être atteinte avec les codes transmis par le signal Galileo E5, et ce jusqu’à 25 kilomètres de distance. [less ▲]

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See detailUnité de recherche universitaire CHU-ULg : Pour une expertise des implants dentaires et des biomatériaux de régénération tissulaire. Une étude de marché et un positionnement de produit
ROBERT, Marine ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

« Science to make you smile »: this very catchy slogan best describes the corporate strategy of the Dental Biomaterials Research Unit (d-BRU) of the University of Liège that focus on industrial company ... [more ▼]

« Science to make you smile »: this very catchy slogan best describes the corporate strategy of the Dental Biomaterials Research Unit (d-BRU) of the University of Liège that focus on industrial company satisfaction by offering a wide range of expertise in dental biomaterials from the bench to the clinic. The current business plan thesis about the research unit’s strategy and its strategy for industry-cooperation development aims to identify the opportunities and threats in the biomaterial market for regenerative and implantable devices. The growing perspectives for implantable device companies are due to the fast-growing old age population and the evolution of technologies. Consequently, the industry demand for characterization, development and improvement of dental biomaterials is high and provides opportunities for company-university collaborative research project through clinical trials project initiation. We conducted a market demand analysis to measure the attractiveness and the dynamics of the dental biomaterials industry market. Among the 15 interviews with representatives of the dental industry, more than a half companies showed a positive reaction to our expertise presentation, which confirmed the demand trends. Few european acadmic centers behave like US universities in terms of industry-oriented marketing ; although the dental industry experienced favourable supply conditions for leading European clinical trials, d-BRU seized the opportunity to positioning as a modern research unit and taking advantage of a competitive edge. The market we aim is divided into 3 distinctive segment. We defined and implemented a distinctive strategic and marketing direction to reach the target market. The d-BRU differenciates itself by providing a Premium all-in-one service from in vitro/in silico tests to clinical performance for the dental industry in the field of biomaterials and implants. Articles published in top-tier scientific journals reflect the well-established scientific expertise of the d-BRU. The research team fulfils its academic goals with strength, conviction and dynamism and devotes the necessary technological and human resources to create the optimum conditions for collaborative research. The financial sustainability of d-BRU is guaranteed by recent existing agreement which assure regular revenue for the next 3 years. Moreover, our revenue forecast show a positive increase from 2016 to 2020. The high-added value of this project stems from a differentiated market positioning and innovative customized service process supported by skilled and highly motivated team of searchers. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Circuit de l'ipséité sartrien. Conception, histoire, enjeux
Recchia, Fabio ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Ce mémoire interroge la thématique de la personnalisation chez Sartre. L'objectif est d'y faire le point sur un angle mort des études sartriennes : le concept de circuit de l’ipséité mis au point par ... [more ▼]

Ce mémoire interroge la thématique de la personnalisation chez Sartre. L'objectif est d'y faire le point sur un angle mort des études sartriennes : le concept de circuit de l’ipséité mis au point par Sartre dans L’être et le néant. Cette recherche est construite en trois parties. La première partie vise à inscrire le circuit de l’ipséité dans la théorie de l’intentionnalité du premier Sartre. L'on montre ainsi la manière dont L’être et le néant approfondit l’impersonnalité de la conscience de La Transcendance de l’Ego dans la direction d’une théorie de la personnalisation du pour-soi, indexée à la méthode de psychanalyse existentielle. La deuxième partie consiste à retracer la généalogie du concept de circuit de l’ipséité. Par un travail d’histoire de la philosophie, on reconstruit l’anthropologie sartrienne, qui s’articule aux concepts de personnalité et de socialité, au croisement de Heidegger, Bergson et Mauss. Cette reprise débouche sur un enjeu majeur : la nécessité d’élargir l’horizon ouvert par la compréhension phénoménologique de l’ipséité par une exploration méthodique des sciences humaines. S’inscrivant dans cette thématique de recherches, la troisième partie de ce mémoire consiste à souligner la persistance du thème de la personnalisation dans la philosophie du second Sartre. Partant, l'on interroge le rapport que celle-ci entretient avec les sciences humaines. [less ▲]

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See detailLes carrières en fin d'activités: un potentiel paysager?
Joris, Alicia ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

The present study focuses on the landscape concept and evaluations and is based on some issues related to the impact, restoration and ecological potential of the abandoned quarries. It proposes a ... [more ▼]

The present study focuses on the landscape concept and evaluations and is based on some issues related to the impact, restoration and ecological potential of the abandoned quarries. It proposes a landscape character assessment for non active limestone quarries resulting from the spontaneous succession. Taking into account the guidelines of the European Landscape Convention (Conseil de l'Europe, 2000) , this work has for objectives (1) to describe these landscape areas and (2) to assess the landscape aesthetic quality. To achieve these goals, two methods inspired by the Landscape Character Assessment (LCA) were tested. The first one is a field sheet and the second one a landscape perception survey with stakeholders. The results have emphasized the natural, harmonious and unique character of these landscapes. The key characteristics are the visual importance of cliffs, water bodies, vegetation forms and the landform in bleachers. Furthermore, color contrast and textures from vegetation, rock and water were also relevant. An apparent aesthetic landscape quality was perceived and the study showed that respondents are feeling good in the site surveyed. The quarryscape can be characterized of challenging, attractive, wild with an important degree of naturality but not really safe. Cultural, historic, symbolic and ecological values were also highlighted as a potential. These later observations take part in a landscape dynamic and allow to open the debate concerning the need for landscape interventions within these sites and the profit we could benefit from if security issues were well-managed. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling of aerodynamic forces in flapping flight with the Unsteady Vortex Lattice Method
Lambert, Thomas ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

This thesis concerns the extensive study and comparison of two approaches commonly used to compute the aerodynamic forces with the unsteady vortex lattice method. The first approach was introduced by Katz ... [more ▼]

This thesis concerns the extensive study and comparison of two approaches commonly used to compute the aerodynamic forces with the unsteady vortex lattice method. The first approach was introduced by Katz and Plotkin and is based on Bernoulli's equations, the second approach was based Joukowski's equations for the computation of forces. This report is divided in two main sections: the study of one wing undergoing simple movements (steady, pure harmonic pitching and pure harmonic plunging) and the study of two separate wings undergoing a combination of flapping and pitching such as seen in avian flight. For the simple test cases, the results obtained with both methods of computation were first compared to an analytical solution for a (quasi) 2D case. Then the comparison of both methods was made for finite wings. For the 3D problem a convergence study was done with respect to the chordwise discretisation of the airfoils. This section showed that for all the cases, the two methods give almost the same answer and therefore they could be considered as equivalent. The convergence study realised for finite wings showed however that Joukowski's method converges quicker than Katz's for symmetric airfoils, but it is the other way around when it comes to cambered airfoils. The study of the flapping and pitching motion is based on the work of N. Abdul Razak. The influence of pitch leading was extensively studied as this phenomenon presents a flow attached at all time, so these kinematics are well suited for the vortex lattice method. Both pure flapping and pitch lagging were also discussed but more briefly. For pitch leading, the study showed that in general both methods give the same results for the drag and the lift. Moreover, the UVLM solutions were very close to the experimental ones, especially for the drag. The convergence showed a small advantage for the Katz method for the coarser meshes, but in the end both methods appear to reach convergence for the same discretisation. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the recent disappearance of a tropical glacier in the Bolivian Andes with the help of the high resolution regional climate model MAR
Scholzen, Chloé ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

This study provides a first evaluation of the MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) model over the Bolivian tropical Andes. MAR is currently developed at the ULg and allows dynamical downscaling up to 5 km ... [more ▼]

This study provides a first evaluation of the MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) model over the Bolivian tropical Andes. MAR is currently developed at the ULg and allows dynamical downscaling up to 5 km of horizontal resolution. The purpose of this work is to model the recent changes in the climatic parameters which are thought to control the mass and energy balance of mountain glaciers in the outer tropics. We focus on the recently vanished Chacaltaya Glacier (16°S), which by virtue of its location and its environmental context is representative of many small-sized glaciers of the Bolivian Andes. To evaluate our model, we first examine simulated precipitation and near-surface temperature against in situ observations from ground weather stations. Since observational data is very scarce in this part of the world, we also refer to qualitative information provided by the scientific literature. We compare the performance of the model forced with two different reanalyses, and with several corrections applied to the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) impacting on temperature and humidity. MAR forced with the ERA-Interim reanalysis yields better results than with the NCEP/NCAR-v2 reanalysis. We then use the best ERA-driven simulation to assess the long-term climate change over 1960-2014 in the region of the Chacaltaya Mountain. The regional atmospheric circulation is adequately simulated by MAR, which reproduces the prevailing seasonal features of the lower, middle and upper troposphere. The climatic anomalies associated to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are also properly recreated. Remaining model biases include an overall year-round dry bias over the Altiplano region, due to the strong corrections applied to the LBCs (-15% for humidity). Over the highest elevations of the Andes, both precipitation and cloud cover are probably overestimated by MAR. The sporadic spatial distribution of convective rainfall also suggests numerical instability in the convective parameterization scheme. Modeled temperatures match very well the observations, but the reliability of the observed time series is highly questionable. Between 1960 and 2014, the most significant trends concern precipitation and cloud cover which both decreased of about 35%. The surface radiation budget also changed as a result of the reduced cloudiness. Near-surface temperature increased by about 1.5°C. Those trends are believed to have been enhanced by the more frequent and more intense El Niño events during the warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase between 1977 and 1999. The combination of the repeated droughts and the enhanced incoming short-wave radiation due to reduced low-level cloudiness are probably the main factors responsible for the acceleration of the Chacaltaya Glacier recession. Nevertheless, the ENSO signal is not always clear in the Bolivian Andes, because of the interference with strong local climatic processes. Moreover, additional forcings of non climatic nature may also be responsible for the rapid demise of the Chacaltaya Glacier. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de l'évolution des conditions climatiques dans la région du Kilimandjaro, à l'aide du modèle MAR, sur la période 1951-2014
Flachat, Alexia ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Kilimanjaro glaciers appear among the most famous tropical glaciers. Even if they represent only 5% of the moutain glaciers, tropical glaciers are very interesting witnesses of the global warming. Indeed ... [more ▼]

Kilimanjaro glaciers appear among the most famous tropical glaciers. Even if they represent only 5% of the moutain glaciers, tropical glaciers are very interesting witnesses of the global warming. Indeed, their time of answer and their sensibility to climatic variations are more important than those of higher latitudes glaciers. Moreover, tropical climate is a very stable climate, which doesn’t present strong annual amplitudes of temperature. Thereby, the temperature is constantly negative at the top of the Kilimanjaro, what induces that the melting is essentially made by sublimation : ice passes from the solid state to the gaseous one, without passing by the liquid state. If we refer to the studies led since the half of the 19th, the climate change had for consequences to intensify the melting of Kibo ice cap, making spend its surface from 12,06 km² in 1912, to 2,36 km² in 2011. Hence, we decided to study by using the Regional Atmospheric Model (MAR), the evolution of climatic conditions in the region of the Kilimanjaro, over the period 1951-2014. We were thus able to put forward, firstly, that the decrease in cloudiness and precipitation, as well as the increased solar radiation, have played an important role in the melting of these glaciers. On the other hand, we also demonstrated that the NCEP and ERA-Interim reanalyses on Africa are not reliable, and consequently, the model presents difficulties to represent in a correct way the climate in our zone. To finish, we analyzed if we found the El Niño and La Niña events, of which the impact on the East African climate has been shown, in the model outputs. [less ▲]

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See detailMiliter pour et sur Internet. L'adhésion au Parti Pirate belge
Macq, Hadrien ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Suède, le 7 juin 2009. Aux élections européennes, un parti politique vient de créer la surprise. Il s’agit du Piratpartiet, fondé à peine trois ans plus tôt et qui vient de récolter sept pourcents des ... [more ▼]

Suède, le 7 juin 2009. Aux élections européennes, un parti politique vient de créer la surprise. Il s’agit du Piratpartiet, fondé à peine trois ans plus tôt et qui vient de récolter sept pourcents des suffrages, obtenant de la sorte un élu au Parlement. Ce parti, créé avant tout pour défendre une autre idée de la propriété intellectuelle, fait rapidement plusieurs dizaines d’émules à travers le monde, y compris en Belgique. La base de leurs revendications est invariable : réforme du droit d’auteur, abolition du brevet sur le vivant et le logiciel, meilleure défense des données privées. Les partis pirates se distinguent également par une utilisation intensive des nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la communication, tant dans leur communication vers l’extérieur que dans leur gestion interne. L’apparition de tels partis sur la scène politique peut être mise en perspective avec deux tendances plus larges au sein des sociétés occidentales. D’une part, Internet s’est petit à petit constitué en tant qu’enjeu politique à part entière, questionnant le système politique sur son mode de gouvernance et son degré de régulation. D’autre part, les pratiques d’engagement se sont progressivement transformées jusqu’à inciter les organisations politiques traditionnelles à s’adapter aux volontés des supposés néo-militants. Dans ce cadre, les partis politiques ont notamment pu s’appuyer sur Internet pour offrir un mode de participation plus souple et plus à même d’attirer de nouveaux adhérents. Cette tendance serait d’ailleurs arrivée à son zénith avec l’émergence de « cyber-partis », basant une grande partie de leur structure sur l’usage des réseaux télématiques. C’est dans cette optique que s’inscrit cette étude, avec pour objectif plus particulier d’interroger les impacts d’Internet sur la dynamique d’adhésion partisane. La question posée est la suivante : quel rôle Internet joue-t-il dans l’adhésion au Parti Pirate belge ? A partir de ce cas, ce sont les perspectives plus larges de l’adhésion aux cyber-partis et des pratiques contemporaines d’engagement qui peuvent être envisagées. De cette manière, il est possible d’apporter certaines réponses au renouvellement des questionnements en science politique engendré par le Web, concernant notamment la participation politique et l’organisation des partis. [less ▲]

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See detailL'estétrol et le développement tumoral
Gallez, Anne ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

A l’heure actuelle, le risque augmenté de troubles thromboemboliques et de cancer du sein chez les femmes sous hormonothérapie est un problème majeur de santé publique. La découverte de nouvelles ... [more ▼]

A l’heure actuelle, le risque augmenté de troubles thromboemboliques et de cancer du sein chez les femmes sous hormonothérapie est un problème majeur de santé publique. La découverte de nouvelles molécules procurant une sécurité sanitaire accrue aux utilisatrices est donc nécessaire. L’estétrol (E4) est proposé comme candidat potentiel. L’E4 est une hormone stéroïdienne, de type « œstrogène », retrouvée naturellement chez l’humain et synthétisée uniquement par le foie fœtal durant la grossesse. Sa grande biodisponibilité orale et son temps de demi-vie de 28 heures chez l’humain le rendent intéressant en tant qu’hormonothérapie de substitution (ERT/HRT). L’E4 est capable de traiter efficacement les symptômes principaux de la ménopause (les bouffées de chaleur, l’atrophie vaginale et l’ostéoporose) et ce, dès une concentration de 0,3 mg/kg/jour. L’étude de son impact sur le cancer du sein est au centre de ce mémoire, puisque c’est l’une des conséquences majeures de l’utilisation prolongée d’œstrogènes et que les données de la littérature restent controversées Des résultats préliminaires obtenus au laboratoire ont montré que l’E4 (3 mg/kg/jour) augmentait le poids des tumeurs dans le modèle murin de carcinogenèse mammaire MMTV-PyMT, contrairement à l’ovariectomie et au traitement au Tamoxifène. Au terme de ce mémoire, nos recherches démontrent que l’E4 utilisé aux doses 0,3 et 7 mg/kg/jour n’influence pas significativement la croissance tumorale. Par contre, l’E4 à 3 mg/kg/jour majore le poids tumoral et la dissémination métastatique chez des animaux ovariectomisés et intacts. De plus, l’E4 délivré à 3 mg/kg/jour est capable d’augmenter l’angiogenèse et de diminuer la nécrose et l’hypoxie intra-tumorale, de manière similaire à l’oestradiol (E2) alors que la dose de 0,3mg/kg/jour n’est pas suffisante pour observer cet effet. En conclusion, les travaux menés pendant mon mémoire de Master ont permis de caractériser les effets de l’E4 sur la carcinogenèse mammaire hormonodépendante, la dissémination métastatique et l'angiogenèse tumorale. Au vu de nos résultats, nous ne pensons pas qu'il soit judicieux d'utiliser l'E4 comme traitement anti-tumoral, comme cela a été suggéré par certains auteurs. Au contraire, nos données suggèrent que pour éviter un effet de l’E4 sur la croissance tumorale et l’angiogenèse, il est nécessaire de privilégier le développement d’un traitement clinique de la ménopause avec de faibles concentrations d’E4. [less ▲]

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See detailEcologie de reproduction du doussié, Afzelia bipindensis Harms, en forêt dense humide tropicale gabonaise.
Evrard, Quentin ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

The species Afzelia bipindensis is a precious woody tree known for its wood quality and considered vulnerable by the IUCN. In order to improve the current knowledge gaps about its reproductive ecology ... [more ▼]

The species Afzelia bipindensis is a precious woody tree known for its wood quality and considered vulnerable by the IUCN. In order to improve the current knowledge gaps about its reproductive ecology, the goals of this study are: (1) identify animal dispersers/predators of the seeds with direct and indirect observation methods, (2) quantify the dispersion/predation, (3) test the germination dynamics of those seeds under some circumstances that are likely to influence it, (4) model the growth of juveniles depending upon the access to light. This study was carried out in the forest concession attributed to the Precious Woods society and situated in evergreen forests in East Gabon. After more than 100 hours of direct observation and 3.000 hours of image capture by camera-trap, only four species (Cricetomys emini, Epixerus wilsoni, Protoxerus stangeri and some undetermined Muridae) would be the main animal species to get interested to Afzelia seeds. Those would take more than 90 % of the seeds and would be essentially predators. The results of the germination test revealed a significant influence of the aril on the germination rate. The conservation time and the volume of the seed had also a significant influence over its fitness. Finally, the modeling of growth showed a very low average growth value over time compared to equivalent data collected in Cameroon and a very high mortality rate, probably due to a high predation rate by duikers. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution au monitoring de populations d'hippopotame commun (Hippopotamus amphibius L.) par l'utilisation de la technologie drone (Parc National de la Garamba, République Démocratique du Congo)
Lhoest, Simon ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

In an era of indisputable decline in populations of large wildlife species, setting up regular and efficient monitoring methods is essential. Because of the difficulties associated with conventional ... [more ▼]

In an era of indisputable decline in populations of large wildlife species, setting up regular and efficient monitoring methods is essential. Because of the difficulties associated with conventional pedestrian and aerial survey procedures, the development of UAV technology turns out to be a potentially interesting alternative. This work focuses on monitoring common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius L.) with the use of this innovative tool. The search for flight parameters optimization to maximize detection and visibility of animals showed a very small decrease in detection rate and certainty of counts with an increasing flying height and a high variability linked to operators realizing observations. It is recommended to fly at a height of 140 meters above ground level, between 6:30 and 8:45 am at the end of the dry season, with cloud cover and wind as low as possible. Three counts correction methods are proposed to estimate the total population from the only emerged observed animals. The average overall correction factor is 1.252. An attempt to describe the demography of a group by individuals length measurements was also implemented. It allowed to obtain a mean distribution of hippos in three age classes, even if results are not extremely accurate. Finally, an algorithm for the semi-automatic count of hippos on thermal infrared imagery was developed, and brought to a mean error of +3.9%. Taking into account the recommendations proposed in this study for the development of inventories protocols would help dealing with the practical constraints of conventional monitoring methods. [less ▲]

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See detailMise en place d’un système de mesure par covariance de turbulence des flux de N2O sur une parcelle agricole
Lognoul, Margaux ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas responsible for 8% of anthropogenic radiative forcing. It is also a major contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. Agricultural soils represent its main source ... [more ▼]

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas responsible for 8% of anthropogenic radiative forcing. It is also a major contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. Agricultural soils represent its main source. N2O is produced by microorganisms through nitrification and denitrification processes. Both depend on oxygenation conditions and nitrogen and labile carbon availability, which are driven by soil and climate conditions and by farming practices. Yet there remain science gaps concerning the understanding of emission mechanisms and dynamics. The eddy covariance technique allows studying a whole ecosystem with a half-hourly temporal resolution, opening up for long-term monitoring and precise greenhouse gas budget calculation. However, this technique requires a specific expertise. In order to install such a system to measure N2O exchanges by a production crop at the Terrestrial Observatory of Lonzée (Belgium), we set the following goals : (1) establishing the state of knowledge concerning N2O fluxes exchanged by crops and identifying gaps, (2) setting up a N2O analyzer at the experimental site and providing operating procedures, and (3) building and adjusting the first data processing and calculation procedures. As a result of this work, scientific gaps were identified and avenues for further research are suggested. Monitoring and data acquisition routines as well as first data processing procedures were implemented. Numerous questions still remain regarding the adaptation of classical methods (created to study CO2) to N2O, and they constitute the investigation prospects of this work. [less ▲]

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See detailDÉTECTION ET QUANTIFICATION DES RACINES ET DES RÉSIDUS DE CULTURE DE FROMENT D’HIVER (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) PAR IMAGERIE HYPERSPECTRALE PROCHE INFRAROUGE
Fraipont, Guillaume ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

On the basis of 384 soil samples collected at 4 different dates during the 2011-2012 crop season in the 0-30 cm soil horizon, this master thesis allowed the study of crop residues evolution and the ... [more ▼]

On the basis of 384 soil samples collected at 4 different dates during the 2011-2012 crop season in the 0-30 cm soil horizon, this master thesis allowed the study of crop residues evolution and the development of winter wheat root system throughout the crop season by the means of NIR-HSI technology and chemometric tools. [less ▲]

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See detailCHARACTERIZATION OF STONY SOILS’ HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES AND REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTARY VOLUME USING FIELD, LABORATORY AND NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS
Pichault, Mathieu ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Determining soil hydraulic properties is of major concern in various fields of study such as soil physics, hydrology, ecology and agronomy. Though stony soils are widespread across the globe, most studies ... [more ▼]

Determining soil hydraulic properties is of major concern in various fields of study such as soil physics, hydrology, ecology and agronomy. Though stony soils are widespread across the globe, most studies deal with gravel-free soils so that the literature describing the impact of stones on a soil’s hydraulic characteristics is still rather scarce. The aim of this study is to assess, through a case study of a clayey soil in Thailand, the effect of rock fragments on the main hydraulic characteristics, i.e. hydraulic conductivity and retention curves, and on related physical properties of the soil. This was done by means of field, laboratory and numerical experiments involving different amounts and types of coarse fragments. Results were compared with those predicted by several models assuming that stones are non-porous and only reduce the cross-sectional area available for water flow. These models further consider that the shape parameters of the retention and hydraulic conductivity curves are not dependent on the stoniness. We tested the validity of such assumptions. We did not find evidence against the assumption stating that stones might be considered as non-porous. However, our results suggest that the shape parameters of the retention curve vary according to the stone content. Furthermore, considering that stones only reduce the cross-sectional area available for water flow might also be ill-founded. We pointed out several significant drivers of the saturated hydraulic conductivity which are not considered by these models. First of all, the effect due to the creation of voids at the fine earth-stone interface combined with an increased difficulty to repack the fine earth can counteract and even overcome the effect of a reduced cross-sectional area in some cases. Moreover, the shape and the size of inclusions may also affect substantially hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we developed a code destined to quantify the representative elementary volume of soils containing different amounts of stones of various diameters. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractérisation et étude du potentiel de valorisation des polyphénols de miels monofloraux
Istasse, Thibaut ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Honey is a natural sweet substance mainly produced by Apis mellifera L. from flowers nectar or honeydew. It is consumed by humans and used as sweetening agent since ancient times. Nowadays, its main ... [more ▼]

Honey is a natural sweet substance mainly produced by Apis mellifera L. from flowers nectar or honeydew. It is consumed by humans and used as sweetening agent since ancient times. Nowadays, its main valorization is in the food sector. Besides its sweetness, honey also has other interesting properties like an antibacterial action. The origins of this antibacterial action are manifold because although honey contains mainly sugars, it is nonetheless a very complex mixture comprising more than one hundred different components. Factors usually involved in honey antibacterial effect are hydrogen peroxide, the high concentration in sugars, the acidic pH, antimicrobial peptides secreted by bees and polyphenols which are secondary metabolites from plants visited by the bees. Among these factors, polyphenols are of particular interest because they represent a market of hundreds of millions of dollars in the world and exhibit different biological activities: antioxidants, antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, etc… These observations lead to a question: could honey polyphenols be extracted for high value-added applications? The purpose of this work is to give a beginning of answer. That’s why an extraction method for honey polyphenols was developed. These compounds were sought in six different honey samples: acacia, chestnut, eucalyptus, thyme, sunflower and wild carrot honeys. After the extraction, samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and mass spectrometry. Several polyphenols were identified and quantified in honeys. If the extraction method isn’t recommended at industrial level at this stage of the project, it can, however, be used for analytical purposes. Further development of the method could allow to link honeys to their floral sources. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude du potentiel des sous produits de la filière vinicole pour des applications à haute valeur ajoutée
Berchem, Thomas ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Nowadays, there is no longer any doubt about the future fossil fuels rarefaction. It is necessary to find more sustainable ways to produce everyday consumer products faced to an increasing population. Bio ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, there is no longer any doubt about the future fossil fuels rarefaction. It is necessary to find more sustainable ways to produce everyday consumer products faced to an increasing population. Bio-based chemistry and bio-refining are alternative solutions deserving a particular attention. The large amount of green waste produced all around the world represents energy and chemical resources with an under-exploited potential. Wine-making byproducts come from grape growing which is one of the largest crop around world. It seems to be an interesting source of bio-based molecules but, despite this potential, these byproducts are untapped. Their uses are limited to poor value added applications like composting, agricultural spreading or bioethanol. This work focuses on the high value added valorization possibilities of the wine-making byproducts. It takes part in the current trend of using natural bioactive molecules in pharmaceutical, parapharmaceutical or food industry. This study is built around three main objectives: a characterization of the raw material and the development of a method to extract polyphenols. The results shown in this work tend to indicate a high valorization potential of grape pomace thank to the identification of interesting compounds like bioactive molecules and especially polyphenols as well as high concentrations of other molecules of which the valorization potential from wine-making byproducts needs to be explored. [less ▲]

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See detailDétection des sauts de cycles en mode multi-fréquence pour le système Galileo
Van de Vyvere, Laura ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

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See detailLearning Artificial Intelligence in Large-Scale Video Games: A First Case Study with Hearthstone: Heroes of Warcraft
Taralla, David ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Over the past twenty years, video games have become more and more complex thanks to the emergence of new computing technologies. The challenges players face now involve the simultaneous consideration of ... [more ▼]

Over the past twenty years, video games have become more and more complex thanks to the emergence of new computing technologies. The challenges players face now involve the simultaneous consideration of many game environment variables — they usually wander in rich 3D environments and have the choice to take numerous actions at any time, and taking an action has combinatorial consequences. However, the artificial intelligence (AI) featured in those games is often not complex enough to feel natural (human). Today's AI is still most of the time hard-coded, but as the game environments become increasingly complex, this task becomes exponentially difficult. To circumvent this issue and come with rich autonomous agents in large-scale video games, many research works already tried and succeeded in making video game AI learn instead of being taught. This thesis does its bit towards this goal. In this work, supervised learning classification based on extremely randomized trees is attempted as a solution to the problem of selecting an action amongst the set of available ones in a given state. In particular, we place ourselves in the context where no assumptions are made on the kind of actions available and where action simulations are not possible to find out what consequences these have on the game. This approach is tested on the collectible card game Hearthstone: HoW, for which an easily-extensible simulator was built. Encouraging results were obtained when facing Nora, the resulting Mage agent, against random and scripted (medium-level) Mage players. Furthermore, besides quantitative results, a qualitative experiment showed that the agent successfully learned to exhibit a board control behavior without having been explicitly taught to do so. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscrete Element Method Modeling of Ball Mills - Liner Wear Evolution
Boemer, Dominik ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Ball mills, i.e. rotating cylindrical drums filled with a feed material and metal balls, also known as the charge, are a major category of grinding devices in mineral processing and cement production ... [more ▼]

Ball mills, i.e. rotating cylindrical drums filled with a feed material and metal balls, also known as the charge, are a major category of grinding devices in mineral processing and cement production. Since the grinding process is excessively energy-intensive and aggressive in terms of wear, a profiled and wear-resistant liner is installed in the mill to transfer energy to the grinding charge more efficiently and to protect the mill shell. Because of the harsh environment inside of the mill and the relatively long lifespan of its liner, the optimization of the liner by the classical way, i.e. experimental testing, is a difficult and slow process. In this thesis, a procedure for predicting the charge motion and the power draw of a ball mill based on the discrete element method (DEM) is calibrated and validated by means of photographs of the charge, and power draw measurements of a 1:5-scale laboratory mill, which were kindly provided by the company Magotteaux International S.A. . This computational method essentially renders future experimental testing unnecessary with respect to these characteristics. Based on this first method, a generic process for predicting the wear distribution and the progressive shape evolution of liner surfaces is developed and validated by the wear profiles of the shell liner in the first chamber of a 5.8 m diameter cement mill monitored during a decade by Magotteaux International S.A. . The energy dissipated by tangential damping defined by the linear spring-slider-damper DEM contact law was found to be the best fitting wear model with respect to the real wear data. The progressive update of the liner geometry by a multi-step procedure delivers relatively accurate results for liners without axial height variation while further investigations are still required for almost fully variable geometries. Nevertheless, detailed phenomena, like the creation of grooves in the liner, were for the first time numerically modeled in this thesis. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of the response of a slender structure to vortex shedding in the atmospheric boundary layer
Wertz, Freddy ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

This work is about modelling vortex induced vibrations on a 100 m height generic reinforced concrete pylon with a square cross-section and a 20 height/width ratio, vibrating in its first across-wind ... [more ▼]

This work is about modelling vortex induced vibrations on a 100 m height generic reinforced concrete pylon with a square cross-section and a 20 height/width ratio, vibrating in its first across-wind bending mode at a frequency of 0.35 Hz for a critical wind speed of 14.6 m/s. An equivalent aeroelastic model made of a copper spline modelling the dynamic behaviour and a foam blocks skin modelling the external geometry and adjusting the mass is realized. Similitude laws are discussed based on their relevance in the simulation. The model is validated through experimental modal analysis and is tested in wind tunnel uniform and boundary layer winds. 3 turbulence levels and 4 incidence angles are tested. Measured amplitudes are small (around 5 cm in full scale). The influence of turbulence is qualitatively visible in experimental results. Analytical and numerical estimation procedures are also implemented and discussed: The Eurocode norm, a harmonic load model and the spectral model of Vickery and Clark. The Eurocode approach gives the most conservative estimations and is followed by estimations from the harmonic load model having the correlation length as parameter. The spectral model gives estimations of the order of magnitude of experimental measurements in the wind tunnel for a spectral bandwidth of 0.2 and a correlation length comprised between 1 and 3 times the width of the cross-section. [less ▲]

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See detailLES ANOMALIES CONGENITALES DANS L’ESPECE BOVINE EN WALLONIE
Djebala, Salem ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Les anomalies congénitales sont devenues un sujet d’actualité en médecine vétérinaire notamment chez les ruminants. Et ce depuis l’émergence des infections virales tératogènes. Les étiologies de ces ... [more ▼]

Les anomalies congénitales sont devenues un sujet d’actualité en médecine vétérinaire notamment chez les ruminants. Et ce depuis l’émergence des infections virales tératogènes. Les étiologies de ces anomalies sont nombreuses. Elles sont d’origines infectieuses, toxiques, alimentaires, traumatiques, génétiques et plusieurs autres étiologies inconnues. Les anomalies musculo-squelettiques et de l’appareil reproducteur sont les plus fréquentes, elles représentent respectivement 51 % et 30 % des cas. Dans les tares congénitales du Blanc-bleu Belge, le nanisme est l’anomalie la plus fréquente (21 %) suivie par le syndrome de la queue tordue, la gestation prolongée et l’hamartome avec 11 %, 10 % et 8 % respectivement. Le syndrome d’arthrogrypose et palathoschisis et la dystonie musculaire congénitale sont de plus en plus rare, leurs fréquences respectives sont 5 % et 3 %. Plusieurs cas de maladie de la génisse blanche et de parésie spastique des membres postérieurs ont été observés. L’autopsie et l’échographie sont les meilleurs moyens pour le diagnostic des anomalies cardiaques congénitales. Dans la race BBB la persistance du trou de Botal est l’anomalie le plus fréquente (22 %). Le segment du coeur le plus touché par les anomalies congénitales est le ventricule droit (34 %). [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de la répartition spatiale des restes fauniques du site éémien de Caours (Somme). Apport des systèmes d'information géographique.
Moreau, Gwénaëlle ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

The Palaeolithic deposit of Caours, located in the Somme, is the only Eemian site in Northern Europe in interglacial context. This site show an incredible conservation of faunal remains spread out over a ... [more ▼]

The Palaeolithic deposit of Caours, located in the Somme, is the only Eemian site in Northern Europe in interglacial context. This site show an incredible conservation of faunal remains spread out over a large area and a recurrence Human occupation. That gave us a large amount of data about this period of Neanderthal history. We now questioning about the choice of this locality and the spatial organisation of Neanderthal. Then, spatial analysis using the Geographic Information System (GIS) appear to being a useful tool to answer it. We show the consequent availability of water, prey and tool raw material. Neanderthalians was opportunistic hunters of cervidae. There has also eat a heavier prey as aurochs and rhino by trapping or scavenging. Then Neanderthal of Caours butchering with tool made in-situ eating the meat and the marrow. [less ▲]

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See detailLa gestion participative en contexte de fusion/acquisition dans les PME à finalité sociale
Souply-Pierard, Fernand ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

The goal of this study is to answer the following research question: “Is participative management a determining factor in the success of the process of "mergers and acquisitions", particularly in the ... [more ▼]

The goal of this study is to answer the following research question: “Is participative management a determining factor in the success of the process of "mergers and acquisitions", particularly in the specific context of study which is that of a socially oriented SMEs? ". It will indeed matter to verify whether the participatory management can be described as such, and that through a study of the literature and a case study in a particular context - that of an Adapted Work Enterprise (ETA): the Ateliers Jean Del'Cour. It recently experienced a merger and acquisition process with another ETA, the ETA Jacqueline Orts. To do so, the case study was conducted in two parts. One of these, the qualitative part, was made with the "top" and "middle" management of the company, while the second, more quantitative, was conducted among workers from one of the absorbed sites which was most affected by this merger and acquisition process. It has been probing the question of indicators (welfare, engagement, recognition, values, participation and communication, essentially) to establish a positive link between participation and merger and acquisition. It was then discovered that such a link exists clearly and that participative management is indeed one of the determining factors in the success of a merger and acquisition process. But the discoveries of this study go further. It was highlighted that communication is the essential element of participatory management, as well as a tool than as a backdrop behind the implementation of other tools and participatory means. The communication must be implemented as soon as possible during the merger and acquisition process, it must be adapted and must be as formal as informal (informal side being very important). This is also valid for the other tools and participatory means. These findings are a real contribution for the managerial level in the specific context studied but also for all merger and acquisition processes, and an invitation to pursue more specific researches on this issue in order to provide accurate and specific answers to problems encountered by companies who experience this major change. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic model reduction of a thermocline storage integrated in a micro-scale solar power plant
Wéber, Noé ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Concentrated solar power plants (CSPs) are one of the growing technologies that will help increase the share of renewable energy in the world’s electricity production. Coupling them with a storage tank ... [more ▼]

Concentrated solar power plants (CSPs) are one of the growing technologies that will help increase the share of renewable energy in the world’s electricity production. Coupling them with a storage tank allows for the storage of excess energy during sunny periods to be reused during the day, hence improving the plant’s capacity factor and reducing the cost of electricity. Thermocline storage tanks are a very good compromise between cost and efficiency constraints, compared with other storage technologies. Nevertheless, powerful dynamic simulation tools are needed to model efficiently the transients linked to the intermittency of the solar source. The aim of the proposed thesis is to contribute to the development of such tools. This paper first compares existing physical deterministic models of a thermocline storage tank and a parabolic trough solar field to reduced models over four reference days. The deterministic models give accurate results with high simulation times, whereas the reduces models are fast, but loose some precision in the results. Some flaws of the simplified tank model are detected, and a third model of storage system is designed. Based on the study of numerous charging and discharging processes, the law that characterizes the evolution of the thermocline is computed and integrated in the new model. This model is then validated over the same four reference days; the dynamic update of the height of the thermocline allows this new model to fit very well any weather condition. The model developed has fixed dimensions and parameters, which limits its generality. As such, a fourth model of tank is developed, based on dimensionless numbers. This last model is validated in various conditions, and is therefore suitable to any situation, with no constraint regarding weather conditions, geometry of the tank or working fluid. The simulation time required by this model is between 75 and 180 times less than that of the first complex model, and the robustness of the model is flawless, which makes it a very powerful tool. Finally, a new control strategy for the solar power plant is assessed : it allows validation of the new model of tank in yet another set of working conditions, as well as investigation of advantages and drawbacks of one strategy over an other. An unexpected observation is that the thermocline height at the end of the day does not depend on the strategy used, even though the evolution is different in both cases. Some numerical issues that have been tackled to bring the model to a perfect robustness are also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailCardio-pulmonary mechanics and minimal modelling in critical care
de Bournonville, Sébastien ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Positive pressure ventilation is a widely used support for patients in intensive care units.Their weak respiratory condition is often accompanied by a weak cardiac status and haemodya-mical instability ... [more ▼]

Positive pressure ventilation is a widely used support for patients in intensive care units.Their weak respiratory condition is often accompanied by a weak cardiac status and haemodya-mical instability. This ventilation support has significant impacts on the cardiovascular systemthat are known but not predicted nor taken into account when varying the respiratory para-meters such as the positive end-expiratory pressure. The fact is that positive end-expiratorypressure increases the intrathoracic pressure. Ultimately, this will lead to decreases in cardiacoutput and stroke volume of the left ventricle. The good parametrization of such ventilator istherefore of primary importance for the critically ill patient cares.This master’s thesis seeks to develop a new minimal model of the cardiovascular and therespiratory system that is new in terms of its cardiovascular lumped model representationand the fact that it takes into account the cardiopulmonary interactions. This new model isaimed to be implemented at bedside for real time monitoring of the patients’ cardiac status asfunction of the respiratory inputs. Its ultimate use will be prediction and active control of thisstatus to improve the work of clinicians.The physiological knowledge in terms of cardiopulmonary interactions was investigated toselect the specific behaviour that will be modelled. The mathematical representation of themodel was precisely described and was designed as a function of physiological relevancy, com-putational weight and data availability. These factors lead to the design of a three chambermodel of the cardiovascular system, focused on the left ventricle, the aorta and the vena cavawhich represent the common available data in ICUs. This three chamber model was coupledto a single compartment model of the lung to compute the intrathoracic pressure that actson intrathoracic structures. Porcine measurements performed with the chest closed were usedto build patient specific models by fitting the model outputs to these measurements. Theconstruction of patient specific models was performed by identifying the patient-specific pa-rameter values of the model. For this purpose, the data were first processed to compute andidentify many parameters. Then an iterative optimization process was implemented to fit themodel to the specific datasets.This model was validated against the aforementioned porcine datasets. It showed physiolo-gical behaviours and reactions in a cardiovascular point of view as well as in a cardiopulmonaryinteractions point of view. By analysing the several identified parameters on the PEEP levelof each pigs, correlations between haemodynamical parameters and the PEEP level applied tothe patients were identified. It also allowed the confirmation that linear ESPVR models arenot appropriated for relatively high levels of PEEPs. The model showed the expected beha-viour of decreasing cardiac output for an increasing PEEP although not in the expected ranges.Eventually, this work opens many research hypotheses and questions in this field. Thequestion of implementing the model at bedside for real-time monitoring should be investigated.A modelling of the correlation between haemodynamic parameters and PEEP based on theresult of this work should also be investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailLa critique cinématographique : Analyse des contrats de lecture proposés dans la presse traditionnelle d’aujourd’hui
Krywicki, Boris ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

De nos jours, l’on constate l’existence de nombreuses alternatives à la critique cinématographique que l’on peut trouver dans la presse traditionnelle. La critique a beaucoup été chahutée au fil du temps ... [more ▼]

De nos jours, l’on constate l’existence de nombreuses alternatives à la critique cinématographique que l’on peut trouver dans la presse traditionnelle. La critique a beaucoup été chahutée au fil du temps : remise en question de la légitimité des journalistes spécialisés, soupçons d’un dénigrement du cinéma populaire, accusation d’être réservée à une élite culturelle… Le genre a changé significativement, tentant de s’adapter à une industrie en constante évolution. Aujourd’hui, l’on peut voir de nouvelles formes émerger sur Internet, de la critique en vidéo sur Youtube à l’avis succinct laissé sur un réseau social. Malgré tout, la critique traditionnelle semble s’en tenir à certains réflexes et aux fondamentaux de la fonction critique. Face à l’opposition entre ces évolutions et ce conservatisme, l’on pourrait s’interroger sur le changement des attentes des lecteurs de critiques. Sont-elles restées les mêmes que dans les années 50, aux débuts des Cahiers du cinéma ? Les réflexes des journalistes spécialisés restent-ils adaptés ? Si nouvelle forme de critique il y a, ne correspond-elle pas à de nouveaux contrats de lecture ? Il nous a semblé intéressant de scruter la critique sous le point de vue de la relation qu’elle propose à son lecteur. [less ▲]

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See detailImplementing and Comparing Stochastic and Robust Programming
Cuvelier, Thibaut ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Traditional optimisation tools focus on deterministic problems: scheduling airline flight crews (with as few employees as possible while still meeting legal constraints, such as maximum working time ... [more ▼]

Traditional optimisation tools focus on deterministic problems: scheduling airline flight crews (with as few employees as possible while still meeting legal constraints, such as maximum working time), finding the shortest path in a graph (used by navigation systems to give directions, usually based on GPS signals), etc. However, this deterministic hypothesis sometimes yields useless solutions: actual parameters cannot always be known to full precision, one reason being their randomness. For example, when scheduling trucks for freight transportation, if there is unexpected congestion on the roads, the deadlines might not be met, the company might be required to financially compensate for this delay, but also for the following deliveries that could not be made on schedule. Two main approaches are developed in the literature to take into account this uncertainty: take decision based on probability distributions of the uncertain parameters (stochastic programming) or considering they lie in some set (robust programming). In general, the first one leads to a large increase in the size of the problems to solve (and thus requires algorithms to work around this dimensionality curse), while the second is more conservative but tends to change the nature of the programs (which can impose a new solver technology). Some authors [2] claim that those two mindsets are equivalent, meaning that the solutions they provide are equivalent when faced with the same uncertainty. The goal of this thesis is to explore this question: for various problems, implement those two approaches, and compare them. Is one solution more secluded from variations due to the uncertain parameters? Does it bring benefits over a deterministic approach? Is one cheaper than the other to compute? [less ▲]

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See detailCARACTÉRISATION D'UNE SOUCHE LOCALE DE MICROALGUE VERTE PRODUCTRICE DE CAROTÉNOÏDES SECONDAIRES
Corato, Amélie ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Les pigments secondaires produits par certaines algues (Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Coelastrella striolata var. multistriata,…) ont de nombreux intérêts dans la médecine(par leur ... [more ▼]

Les pigments secondaires produits par certaines algues (Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Coelastrella striolata var. multistriata,…) ont de nombreux intérêts dans la médecine(par leur pouvoir antioxydant), l’aquaculture, l’industrie,…. La microalgue H. pluvialis est la plus grande source productrice naturelle d’astaxanthine. Ce pigment est le caroténoïde secondaire le plus recherché de par son pouvoir antioxydant très élevé. H. pluvialis est difficile à cultiver et croît lentement par rapport à d’autres microalgues vertes (par exemple, l’organisme de référence C. reinhardtii), c’est pourquoi de nombreux scientifiques cherchent des alternatives efficaces à celle-ci. Parmi elles, C. zofingiensis semble être une bonne concurrente, même si elle est loin de produire une quantité d’astaxanthine équivalente à celle que produit H. pluvialis. Dans ce contexte, nous avons isolé une microalgue dans la région de Liège (Belgique) et, en première observation, il s’est avéré qu’elle possède la particularité de produire naturellement des pigments secondaires. Nous avons donc cherché des conditions de culture propices à l’augmentation de la vitesse de production de ces pigments par cette microalgue. Nous avons réalisé une identification, en utilisant des outils moléculaires. Ensuite, nous avons analysé les différents modes de cultures possibles pour augmenter sa vitesse de croissance et son accumulation de biomasse « verte », en vue de l’utiliser pour les analyses de production de caroténoïdes secondaires. Des mesures de l’activité photosynthétique ont également été réalisées en vue de mieux comprendre l’effet du CO2 sur la croissance photoautotrophe. Enfin, des analyses de production de caroténoïdes secondaires par des cultures, suite à l’application de stress reconnus pour augmenter la vitesse de production de ces pigments chez les microalgues, ont été effectuées et le contenu en pigments de différentes cultures a été analysé par HPLC. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement participatif en entreprise: un changement dans la stratégie syndicale?
Joiris, Jessica ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

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See detailThe "Women Against Feminism" Campaign: A case study
Wintgens, Caroline ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

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See detailBidding farewell? On the assessment of the structural or situational nature of the current crisis surrounding David Cameron's prospective referendum on Britain's continued membership of the European Union
Niessen, Annie ULg

Master's dissertation (2015)

Since David Cameron’s announcement for an 'in/out' referendum, Britain’s membership of the European Union has been in jeopardy. This recent crisis in the UK-EEC/EU relationship is far from being the first ... [more ▼]

Since David Cameron’s announcement for an 'in/out' referendum, Britain’s membership of the European Union has been in jeopardy. This recent crisis in the UK-EEC/EU relationship is far from being the first one. Indeed, the UK has acquired the reputation of a difficult Member State since his accession in 1973. My dissertation explores this relationship throughout the different crises that occurred under the successive premierships in order to answer the following research question: is the current crisis surrounding Cameron’s ‘in/out’ referendum a structural or a situational phenomenon? To that end, the dissertation body is divided into three parts. Part 1 deals with the legal and practical possibilities of withdrawal from the EU. Part 2 is a journey through the past UK-EEC/EU relationship with a focus on the crises and the reforms demanded by the former Prime Ministers. Part 3 focuses on the current crisis, exploring Cameron’s demands for reforms and comparing them with three other party leaders’ demands before the 2015 general election. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication de la diffusion Raman exaltée de surface à la détection de petites molécules d'intérêt : le lactate
Dumont, Elodie ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, much more sensitive than normal Raman spectroscopy, was chosen as a « Green Chemistry » analytical tool to develop a quantitative approach for sodium lactate at ... [more ▼]

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, much more sensitive than normal Raman spectroscopy, was chosen as a « Green Chemistry » analytical tool to develop a quantitative approach for sodium lactate at physiological concentrations detection. Indeed, the lactate is an important biomarker involved in many diseases, including Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Different nanoparticles’ synthesis were performed and characterized to ensure their repetability. These nanoparticles were then put into contact with lactate in order to detect this metabolite with a good sensitivity. The next step was the functionalization of the nanoparticles’ surface with the aim of increasing sensitivity and selectivity of the detection. Among the capping agents tested, (11-mercaptoundécyl)-N,N,N-triméthylammonium bromide, a quaternary ammonium compound, was selected and the experimental conditions were optimized with the help of a design of experiments. Once again, lactate quantification was performed. Detection was possible from 0,1 to 7,5 mM. Finally, detection of dried spots of lactate in water and in phosphate buffer was possible through the same functionalization agent. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic statistical design of nonparametric control charts
Marcos Alvarez, Alejandro ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

In this work, we apply the economic statistical design framework to nonparametric control charts. To this end, we develop bounds for the type II error probability, i.e. the false negatives rate, of the ... [more ▼]

In this work, we apply the economic statistical design framework to nonparametric control charts. To this end, we develop bounds for the type II error probability, i.e. the false negatives rate, of the nonparametric charts that are then used within the model. We implement the optimization problem defining economic statistical design and use it to find the design parameters of nonparametric control charts. We then compare the behavior of this design with parametric and nonparametric charts on different probability distributions with different values of the distribution parameters. We finally perform a brief analysis of the obtained results that emphasizes the differences between the economic statistical design of parametric and nonparametric control charts. In this study, we also give a number of advantages and shortcomings of both approaches so that the interested reader can make the best possible decision on which control chart it is better to use for a given application. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-Science Fiction and the Post-Posthuman
Guesse, Carole ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

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See detailContribution à l'étude de l'optimum technico-économique de l'intervalle vêlage chez les vaches laitières en Wallonie, plus particulièrement en Région herbagère liégeoise
Dalcq, Anne-Catherine ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

The calving interval (CI) is extending with potential impacts for the dairy breeders. In this way, the aim of this master thesis is to contribute to the study of the technicoeconomic optimum of the CI of ... [more ▼]

The calving interval (CI) is extending with potential impacts for the dairy breeders. In this way, the aim of this master thesis is to contribute to the study of the technicoeconomic optimum of the CI of dairy cows in Walloon Region of Belgium, especially in the “Région herbagère liégoise”. To this purpose a total of 1318 balance sheets, collected between 2007 and 2012 on 373 commercial dairy farms, were studied. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted, as well as a separation of the typological variability of the farms, in order to bring to light a link between the CI and the technicoeconomic variables and more particularly the gross margin per cow milked (GMCM) and thus to define an economic optimum of CI. A mean CI of the herd and a representative CI (which is the most common CI in the herd) have been assigned to each balance sheet. Moreover, surveys have been conducted with 5 dairy breeders and 22 Walloon vets in order to confront the results obtained with the situation in the field. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be observed that the relationship between the CI and the GMCM is weak (R = -0,085) and that the GMCM of the observations herd*year of the class representative short CI and the class representative long CI is not significantly different between these two classes (P-value > 0,05). The GMCM of the farms with short CI tend to be built up in the same way as with the long CI, except that the farms with long CI appears to depend even more on the milk price and the farms with short CI on the livestock costs. Because of the low impact of the CI on the economical results, a single technical and economical optimum of the CI has not emerged. The study of the typological variability of the best farms according to their economical results shows that the mean CI tends to rise with the intensification of the feeding and the increase of the level of the dairy production of the farms (coefficient of the linear trendline = 2,52, R2 = 66,83%). It therefore seems that the technicoeconomic optimum of CI tends to vary depending on the typology of the exploitation and to increase with the two herd parameters mentioned above. However, according to the surveys, the CI of the herd seems to be partly unknown by the breeders and more undergone than wished. Raising awareness of the breeders of the CI of their herd, gathering individual data as well as additional data in order to continue the study of the typological variability of farms are future options to explore in order to validate the results obtained and to provide ways of improvement to the breeders. [less ▲]

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See detailIntégration perceptive et mémoire épisodique dans la maladie d'Alzheimer
Delhaye, Emma ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

Binding (i.e., to link different components together) is a key mechanism for episodic memory formation. Normal aging is characterized by a decrease in episodic memory for associations. However ... [more ▼]

Binding (i.e., to link different components together) is a key mechanism for episodic memory formation. Normal aging is characterized by a decrease in episodic memory for associations. However, associative memory performance can be improved and age-related differences can even be suppressed when associations are unitized, that is when they are encoded as an integrated whole. A previous study in Alzheimer's disease (AD) showed that patients do not benefit from this particular type of encoding in episodic memory, so that their performance for unitized representations remains very poor. The aim of the current study was to assess whether the unitization mechanism itself (i.e., to integrate components into a whole) is impaired in AD or whether a global memory impairment affects all kinds of representations (unitized and non-unitized). We evaluated this hypothesis in fifteen mild Alzheimer patients and twenty healthy control participants. To systematically increase the demands on unitization, pictures of objects and animals were either left intact, separated into two fragments, or separated into four fragments. Participants viewed the pictures and had to unitize them first in order to recognize it and judge whether it would fit into a shoebox. In a subsequent recognition test where all pictures were intact, they had to retrieve pictures they saw earlier. An analysis of correct recognition of studied pictures showed a significant interaction between group and fragmentation level, indicating a decrease in Alzheimer patients’ performance compared to control participants for pictures that were fragmented at study but not for pictures that were intact at encoding. These findings suggest that the perceptual mechanism of unitization of fragmented stimuli is impaired in Alzheimer's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de la pertinence du couplage entre le modèle régional MAR et le modèle de calotte glaciaire GRISLI sur le Groenland
Wyard, Coraline ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

During the two last decades, the Greenland ice sheet (GrIs) contribution to the global mean sea level (GMSL) rise has significantly increased. In the future, difficulties remain to assess the GrIs ... [more ▼]

During the two last decades, the Greenland ice sheet (GrIs) contribution to the global mean sea level (GMSL) rise has significantly increased. In the future, difficulties remain to assess the GrIs contribution to GMSL rise because of large uncertainties linked to the feedback between the surface mass balance (SMB) and the elevation of the GrIs. In 2013, Xavier Fettweis, my promoter, has coupled a regional climate model (RCM), the model MAR, with an ice sheet model (ISM), the model GRISLI, in order to account of this feedback and, in this way, to improve the assessment of the future GrIs contribution to the GMSL rise. The aim of this study is to assess the pertinence of the MAR−GRISLI coupling which requires long computation time. Nine imulations were carried out with GRISLI. Six of these simulations consisted in forcing GRISLI with several present days MAR outputs (SMB and surface temperature) in order to identify the GRISLI biases. The three last simulations consisted in forcing GRISLI until 2100 with future non-coupled, coupled and modified non- coupled MAR outputs in order to find a technique to avoid the coupling. The results show that initial conditions need to be improved and that the ice flow velocities required recalibration because an abnormal present-day thickening of the GrIs margins. Ice calving only depends on ice sheet extension because of constant ice flow velocities. The MAR−GRISLI coupling can be avoided until the middle of the 2080s. Beyond these years, the SMB correction is too large so that the thinning of the GrIs margins is overestimated. In a further study, the SMB correction could be reduced to avoid the MAR−GRISLI coupling over longer periods. GRISLI could be improved or replaced by a more complex ISM with dynamic ice flow velocities to enhance the results. [less ▲]

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See detailApproche hédonique du marché des terrains à bâtir : Modélisation des prix dans les bassins d'emploi de Liège et de Charleroi, comparaison interbassin et évolution temporelle liégeoise
Maldague, Hubert ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

The study focuses on modeling the price of building land by the hedonic approach in the Liège and Charleroi areas, Belgium. We test a lot of location variables in addition to some structural variables to ... [more ▼]

The study focuses on modeling the price of building land by the hedonic approach in the Liège and Charleroi areas, Belgium. We test a lot of location variables in addition to some structural variables to define their influence on price formation. We show that the location variables have a more or less important role, sometimes questionable, and we discuss these results. [less ▲]

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See detailETUDE DE LA DYNAMIQUE DES ARN DANS LE NUCLÉOLE DES CELLULES DE REPTILES
Bartholomé, Odile ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

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See detailAs fronteiras de Nord-Pas-de-Calais: um estudo de campo sobre a securitização da imigração em França
Da Silva, Amanda Carolina ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

This thesis aims to analyze the migration policies of France through the prism of the securitization of immigration theory. This theoretical current comes from the school of critical security studies, and ... [more ▼]

This thesis aims to analyze the migration policies of France through the prism of the securitization of immigration theory. This theoretical current comes from the school of critical security studies, and has as central concepts security threat, borders and boundaries. The securitization observes that immigration is conceptualized as a source of insecurity for the political community, where the boundaries are erected to protect autochthonous, where political speeches (anti-immigration) and migration policies (restrictive) are convergent. The french immigration and integration policies are guided by universalist republican model. The nature of this model provides a structural problem for implementing policies for minorities, that along with political speeches, against immigration, provided the increase in nationalism. There is a facility to convert the refugees into a source of insecurity due to the competition between human security and national security. The refugees are in the gray zone of migration policies, where the concept can be easily manipulated, and the criteria for granting refugee status may be contested. The field research on the situation of refugees in Nord-Pas-de-Calais demonstrates that the dialectic between the concepts of refugee, illegal immigrant and sans-papiers contributes for the permanence of insecurity and confinement of refugees between the borders, which France and United Kingdom are implicated. This research reveals an absence of welcome context (of the government), where refugees are at the mercy of the illegal immigration market and police violence [less ▲]

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See detailFrozen Moments. Archival Materialities and Database-Narratives in Chris Ware's 'Building Stories'
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

Building Stories (2012), le dernier ‘roman graphique’ de l’auteur nord-américain Chris Ware se compose non pas d’un livre, mais d’une multitude d’objets imprimés sous divers formats et réunis au sein ... [more ▼]

Building Stories (2012), le dernier ‘roman graphique’ de l’auteur nord-américain Chris Ware se compose non pas d’un livre, mais d’une multitude d’objets imprimés sous divers formats et réunis au sein d’une boîte en carton surdimensionnée. Le lecteur est invité à trouver son propre parcours à travers ces différents formats de bandes dessinée. Bien que chaque pièce est reliée aux autres par un univers diégétique partagé et une multitude de détails, assembler les pièces du puzzle se révèle être une tentative perpétuellement frustrée. L’expérimentation de la matérialité du format à laquelle Chris Ware se prête dans Building Stories est intiment lié à plusieurs développements dans le champ nord-américain de la bande dessinée, et dans le secteur culturel plus large. Alors que la publication en série est en train de disparaître, le roman graphique s’est imposé comme un nouveau format dominant et culturellement légitime. En réunissant dans une boîte des fragments prépubliés qui sont maintenus dans leurs formats d’origine, ainsi qu’en multipliant les allusions à l’histoire matérielle de la bande dessinée américaine par les types de format qu’il intègre, Ware récupère le potentiel de la sérialisation comme un mode discontinu de publication radical pour le temps présent. À l’ère du numérique, Building Stories est à la fois un hommage à l’industrie de l’imprimé, ainsi qu’une bande dessinée qui se prête à un format empruntant aux pratiques de lecture typiquement associées aux nouveaux médias. En effet, Ware explore la database comme un mode d’organisation narratif qui permet aux lecteurs de générer perpétuellement de nouveaux récits. [less ▲]

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See detailImplication de la stabilité et de la dynamique temporelle du biais attentionnel vers la menace dans la modification de ce biais auprès d'individus manifestant un haut niveau d'anxiété-trait
Krings, Audrey ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

Les biais attentionnels (BA) vers la menace sont présents chez les individus anxieux. Ces BA ont un rôle tant dans l’étiologie de l’anxiété que dans le maintien de celle-ci. Pour diminuer l’anxiété, une ... [more ▼]

Les biais attentionnels (BA) vers la menace sont présents chez les individus anxieux. Ces BA ont un rôle tant dans l’étiologie de l’anxiété que dans le maintien de celle-ci. Pour diminuer l’anxiété, une méthode cognitive appliquée sur ordinateur a été créée en vue d’apprendre aux participants à allouer leur attention vers les stimuli neutres, celle-ci se nomme le réentraînement attentionnel (RA). Cependant, les résultats concernant cette méthode sont inconsistants dans la littérature. Il se pourrait donc que des facteurs modérateurs puissent rendre compte de ces résultats. Des études consacrées à ces modérateurs ont mis en évidence que le BA préexistant (mesuré juste avant l’administration du réentraînement attentionnel) serait un bon prédicteur de l’efficacité de cette méthode. Cependant, un BA est un processus influencé tant par des composantes stables que par des composantes dynamiques. Il peut fluctuer dans le temps ou rester stable. Ainsi, cette étude teste l'implication de ces composantes stables et dynamiques du BA en ligne de base dans l’efficacité des procédures de RA. Des sujets avec un haut niveau d’anxiété-trait ont donc été sélectionnés ici. Le BA de ces sujets a été testé trois fois. Une fois deux semaines avant l’administration du RA; une seconde fois juste avant et une dernière fois juste après celle-ci. Les résultats obtenus prônent que le dynamisme temporel du BA en ligne de base serait davantage associé à une efficacité de cette procédure, puisqu’il constitue le meilleur prédicteur de l’amélioration de la performance des participants lors de cette tâche. Ceci a toute son importante dans la pratique clinique, et permet d’en apprendre davantage sur la variabilité des résultats obtenus dans la littérature. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude des racémases RacX et YlmE et de la protéine PBP4* de Bacillus subtilis en relation avec la désintégration de biofilms
Vanden Broeck, Arnaud ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

Bacillus subtilis is a PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacterium) Gram positive bacterium and a model for studying the in vitro formation, maturation or disruption of biofilms. Biofilms have been ... [more ▼]

Bacillus subtilis is a PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacterium) Gram positive bacterium and a model for studying the in vitro formation, maturation or disruption of biofilms. Biofilms have been studied for many years because of their adverse effects in the medical sphere. Some D-amino acids have been reported among the factors playing a role in the disassembly of B. subtilis biofilms and a double ylmE and racX mutant (in which both YlmE and RacX racemases are absent) shows a delay in pellicle disruption [I. Kolodkin et al. Science (2010) 328:627-629]. The racX encoding gene is part of a bicistronic operon in which the first gene (pbpE) codes for a putative Penicillin-Binding Protein, the PBP4* whose function is not characterized. Results from DNA microarrays and Proteomics [D. Ren et al. Biotechnology and Bioengineering (2004) 86:344-364] have shown that in B. subtilis biofilms, the expression of the gene coding for PBP4* is increased. Our study in this master thesis aimed to investigate the functions and the structures of the RacX, YlmE and PBP4* proteins. A wide range of techniques such as cloning, into expression vectors, purification, treatment of the recombinant proteins by specific proteases to eliminate the chromatography affinity tags, structural and biochemical characterizations of the proteins have been used. According to sequence analyses, RacX belongs to the Asp/Glu racemase family. We succeeded to produce and purify 34 mg of RacX whose His-tag has been completely eliminated. The protein appeared active on D-Glutamate as substrate but inactive on D-Aspartate. A physiological role is proposed for RacX in the recovery of D-Glu from the peptidoglycan peptides. However, its implication in the biofilm disassembly process is still elusive. The YlmE racemase was also produced and purified (46 mg). Although a role in the in vivo production of D-Tyrosine in B. subtilis ageing biofilms has been proposed for this protein, our attempts to detect an activity on L-Tyr or any other amino acid remained unsuccessful. Bioinformatic studies relate YlmE to type III PLP dependent enzymes close to Alanine racemases. Alignments of YlmE with Alanine racemases pointed out that a C-terminal domain was missing in YlmE. A model has been proposed to explain the absence of YlmE activity. Several constructs were performed to restore a racemase activity: e.g. a fusion of YlmE to the C-terminal domain of the AlaR2 racemase from B. subtilis, but the chimeric protein was insoluble, or the fusion of the AlaR2 C-terminal domain to TrxA in view to obtain in trans complementation with purified YlmE. PBP4* (encoded by pbpE) has been purified (63 mg) and two activities were detected: L-aminopeptidase and DD-carboxypeptidase activities. This PBP is composed of two distinct domains : a N-Terminal catalytic domain related to the D-aminopeptidase from Ochrobactrum anthropic and a C-terminal one that has a lipocalin-like fold. This domain seems involved in the oligomerization of the protein. First attempts of X-Ray diffraction of the entire protein crystals did not give data with sufficient resolution. Therefore, each domain has been separately produced to determine the 3D structure of this unusual PBP. [less ▲]

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See detailClasses, conscience de classe et "classe politique"
Counet, Maxime ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

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See detailEspaces de suites, dimension diamétrale, propriétés (DN) et (Omega)
Demeulenaere, Loïc ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

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See detailSequential decision making under uncertainty in randomly generated games : A Minecraft intelligent agent for resource gathering
Lorent, Pierre ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

Video games have significantly evolved since the emergence of first arcade games. They have become more and more complex and now allow for the simulation of advanced environments. This work focuses on the ... [more ▼]

Video games have significantly evolved since the emergence of first arcade games. They have become more and more complex and now allow for the simulation of advanced environments. This work focuses on the development of an intelligent agent that aims at collecting a given type of ressource in random worlds from Minecraft, a well-known video game. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement of night-only electricity meters
Merciadri, Luca ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

In this Master’s thesis, the influence of PhotoVoltaic (PV) panels on the distribution network is explained and related available solutions are also mentioned. We focus on a solution which consists of ... [more ▼]

In this Master’s thesis, the influence of PhotoVoltaic (PV) panels on the distribution network is explained and related available solutions are also mentioned. We focus on a solution which consists of optimally using flexible loads. We consider a price signal with two settings: off- peak tariff and on-peak tariff. Some suitable loads are connected to specific electricity meters, called ‘night-only meters,’ which allow the consumption of power only in off-peak periods. We describe the meters’ characteristics and the suitable loads. We also discuss the aspects related to the practical implementation. Historically, off-peak periods were located during the night and on-peak periods during the day. Changing the assignment of off-peak periods is an easy method for distribution system operators to access to the flexibility of small consumers. This solution can be implemented quickly as the infrastructure needed already exists. We propose a mixed-integer linear model to assign optimally the off-peak hours so as to maximize a social welfare. This welfare gathers together the cost of electricity, the financial losses due to energy curtailments of PV installations and the loads’ wellbeing. Our model considers automatic tripping of inverters and constraints of the electrical distribution networks. We target night-only meters, but an extension to dual-hourly meters is also presented. The results compare the application of the classical pattern against the optimal one for summer and winter days, the influence of the available variable power for a summer day, and the use of a monthly-optimal pattern against the classical one for a summer month. The new disposition of off-peak hours can reduce by 50% the PV energy curtailed in the summer, and can also help reducing the power flow going through the High-Voltage (HV)/Medium-Voltage (MV) transformer. The document ends by a cost analysis comparing the homes’ money gains in two main cases: classical pattern and monthly-optimal one, for a summer month. For each case, the Distribution System Operator (DSO) either refunds curtailments or not. Four different types of homes are considered: with or without night-only meters, with or without PV. This analysis allows to know rapidly who earns money and who looses money by getting plausible values of electricity bills. [less ▲]

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See detailÉtude du mouvement autorotatif des grues sous vent turbulent
Vanvinckenroye, Hélène ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

This work aims to study the motion of tower cranes subjected to turbulent wind. Tower cranes are structures composed of a rigid mast and a rotating jig. The jig may exhibit autorotations that could lead ... [more ▼]

This work aims to study the motion of tower cranes subjected to turbulent wind. Tower cranes are structures composed of a rigid mast and a rotating jig. The jig may exhibit autorotations that could lead to partial or total collapse of the structure. The crane is modeled by a single degree-of-freedom oscillator assuming a perfectly rigid jig rotating around a fixed point representing the jig-mast connection. In case of a unidirectional and spatially uniform velocity field, the problem presents strong similarities with a vertically excited pendulum. Three models are developed. The first one focuses on the behavior of the jig under some simplified assumptions, as a unidirectional and spatially uniform velocity field. This model aims to understand the behavior of the crane with a limited number of parameters. Depending on the shape of the velocity field, the response of the structure is characterized by the variance of the angular position and velocity, the percentage of autorotations, etc. In case of a deterministic and periodic wind velocity, the stability of the jig is represented in the amplitude-frequency parameter space and instability lobes can be highlighted for characteristic frequencies of the sollicitation. The intermediate and complete models raise the assumptions of the first model and define a realistic wind field characterized by its power spectral density. The stochastic process is studied thanks to Monte Carlo simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailCellular regulation mechanisms : case study of up and down states in the Purkinje cell
Wehenkel, Marie ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

In 1963, Hodgkin and Huxley obtained the Nobel Prize to have shown that the electrical activity of a neuron could be modelled by an electrical RC circuit containing non-linear conductances. This discovery ... [more ▼]

In 1963, Hodgkin and Huxley obtained the Nobel Prize to have shown that the electrical activity of a neuron could be modelled by an electrical RC circuit containing non-linear conductances. This discovery made it possible to reproduce the electrical behaviour of neurons with a level of detail that has steadily increased over the last fifty years as new quantitative knowledge became available about the specific ionic currents that regulate the activity of a given neuron. But models with too many details are often non-robust and too complex for analysis. As control engineers need simplified models for control design, experimental neurophysiologists are in need of models that are amenable to sensitivity and robustness analysis, beyond the mere simulation of a given neuronal behaviour recorded experimentally. The Purkinje cell has been studied for over hundred years because its large dendritic tree enables to recognize it easily with a microscope. This neuron exhibits a bistability between a stable hyperpolarized down-state and a stable depolarized spiking state. It is one of the first discovered neurons, however its electrical behaviour is not well understood so far. The principal question of the thesis is to model the electrophysiology of the Purkinje cell to advance the understanding of its regulation mechanisms. More particularly, the objective of the thesis is to explore recent work about the role of the calcium current in neuronal excitability as a possible mechanism underlying the bistability observed in the Purkinje cell. The electrical activity of the Purkinje cell is reproduced in this thesis thanks to a reduced physiological model which can be seen as an intermediate between a detailed model with dendritic compartments and an abstract model of bistability. This novel model is the main contribution of the thesis. Its main ingredients are on the one hand a fast sodium current and a slow potassium restorative current whose particular kinetics account for the up-state excitability, and on the other hand a slow regenerative calcium current and an ultraslow calcium-dependent potassium current for bistability. The proposed model suggests several implications. First, a complex compartmental model seems unnecessary to reproduce the electrophysiology of the cell, although the profuse dendrites are an important characteristic of the Purkinje neuron. Secondly, the Purkinje neuron appears to be regulated by the same mechanisms as other bistable neurons such as the thalamocortical (TC) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons. Its behaviour depends on the same feedback mechanisms (a fast regenerative sodium current, a slow restorative potassium current and a slow regenerative calcium current), event though the temporal signature is markedly different because of the specific channel kinetics primarily of the slow potassium current. Finally this novel model makes the Purkinje cell modelling amenable to robustness and modulation studies, as recently shown for similar neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation hydromécanique de l'argile à Opalines: retour d'expérience sur le micro-tunnel HG-A
Bertrand, François ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

L’énergie nucléaire procure 15% de l’électricité mondiale, c’est 22% dans les pays de l’OCDE et 36% en Suisse. Comme certains déchets nucléaires sont hautement radioactifs, il est nécessaire de les isoler ... [more ▼]

L’énergie nucléaire procure 15% de l’électricité mondiale, c’est 22% dans les pays de l’OCDE et 36% en Suisse. Comme certains déchets nucléaires sont hautement radioactifs, il est nécessaire de les isoler de la biosphère. Pour ce faire, la voie privilégiée est le stockage en couche géologique profonde. En Suisse, l’argile à Opalines est étudiée au laboratoire souterrain du Mont-Terri dans ce but. Les expériences menées au sein du laboratoire permettent d’étudier les caractéristiques de l’argile à Opalines. Il s’agit d’une roche très peu perméable dans laquelle les circulations d’eau sont très lentes, les déchets seraient donc confinés à long terme. Une question importante est la durée du confinement. Les expériences telles que celles menées au sein du micro-tunnel HG-A fournissent des données qui permettent de calibrer et valider les modèles numériques. Des simulations à très long terme sont alors envisageables grâce à ces modèles. La modélisation du micro-tunnel repose sur des modèles physiques et mathématiques présentés dans ce travail. Par définition, ils impliquent toujours une certaine simplification de la réalité. Ces modèles dépendent d’un certain nombre de paramètres dont les gammes de valeurs doivent être évaluées expérimentalement. Dans ce but, des essais de laboratoire sont modélisés et interprétés pour caractériser le comportement de l’argile à Opalines. En raison de l’anisotropie du matériau, différentes directions de chargement doivent être considérées lors de ces essais. La littérature scientifique est aussi consultée. Une fois le comportement de l’argile à Opalines caractérisé, l’excavation du micro-tunnel HGA est modélisée grâce au code de calcul éléments finis « Lagamine ». Cette modélisation est réalisée en deux dimensions en incorporant une à une les différents types d’anisotropie (contraintes in situ, paramètres mécaniques et hydrauliques) dans le modèle. L’influence de chacune de ces anisotropies peut ainsi être mise en évidence. Le modèle rassemblant toutes les anisotropies permet d’observer une surpression d’eau à la position d’un forage situé latéralement au tunnel. Ce pic de surpression est néanmoins sous-estimé par rapport aux données expérimentales. Une zone endommagée est alors introduite afin d’améliorer le modèle. Dans cette zone, la résistance est diminuée alors que la perméabilité est accrue suite à l’altération. Une calibration est ensuite effectuée pour proposer un set de paramètres permettant de suivre correctement les données expérimentales. Enfin, le modèle est testé avec les données provenant du gonflement d’un megapacker mis en place dans le tunnel plusieurs mois après l’excavation. Pour cette phase, le modèle s’écarte plus nettement des données que lors de la période utilisée pour la calibration. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneric image classification: random and convolutional approaches
Begon, Jean-Michel ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

Supervised learning introduces genericity in the field of image classification, thus enabling fast progress in the domain. Genericity does not imply ease-of-use, however, and the best methods in term of ... [more ▼]

Supervised learning introduces genericity in the field of image classification, thus enabling fast progress in the domain. Genericity does not imply ease-of-use, however, and the best methods in term of accuracy, namely convolutional neural networks, suffer from its lack. In this master thesis, we propose an alternative approach relying on extremely randomized trees and random subwindow extraction combine with elements of the convolutional networks. We explore two modes of utilization of the forest: primarily a direct approach where the forest is the final classifier (ET-DIC) and to a lesser extent, a preprocessing step where the forest is used to build a visual dictionary but where the actual classification is undertaken by a support vector machine (ET-FL). We show that, in both modes, our scheme performs better than without using the convolutional network elements but we are not quite yet reaching their performances. The ET-DIC variant keeps more in the line of classification forest advantages but performs less well as far as accuracy is concerned. This is further highlighted by the remarkable stability of the ET-DIC mode. This stability accounts for the ease-of-use of the method but also prevents elaborated optimization. We were able to score an accuracy of 0.613 whereas the record for this mode without the convolutional network elements was of 0.5367. The ET-FL produces better results at the cost of a greater variability of accuracy due to the loss of the ability to favor the interesting filters and a greater overfitting, consequence of the loss of the ensemble smoothing effect. The accuracies range from 0.55 to 0.7431 depending on the choice of hyper-parameters. The computational cost of both methods is much greater than with a traditional forest, however. [less ▲]

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See detailMarcher en ville, percevoir et évaluer les ambiances. Etude de la "marchabilité" à Liège à travers deux cheminements.
Bastin, Florine ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

A notre époque, où l'obésité touche une grande partie de la population et où le gaz à effet de serre ne cesse d'augmenter, la marche apparait comme une activité essentielle pour être en forme et pour ... [more ▼]

A notre époque, où l'obésité touche une grande partie de la population et où le gaz à effet de serre ne cesse d'augmenter, la marche apparait comme une activité essentielle pour être en forme et pour préserver l'environnement. Elle est devenue un réel enjeu pour le bien-être de notre société. Il est donc judicieux de comprendre quelles sont les issues pour bâtir une ville qui ferait marcher? Existe-il seulement une réponse? Dans ce travail de fin d'étude, je m'attache à comprendre le lien qui existe entre la forme urbaine et la pratique de la marche. Il s'agit plus précisément de saisir l'influence que peut avoir l'architecture sur la perception de l'espace. Pour répondre à cette problématique, j'ai réalisé une étude de terrain à Liège sur deux cheminements prédéfinis. j'ai pu évaluer le potentiel piétonnier de la ville de Liège, en employant une méthode qualitative d'approche sensible de l'espace par la marche et une méthode plus quantitative au moyen d'un audit de "marchabilité". Ce travail vise à promouvoir la marche en ville et invite à observer le paysage urbain avec une plus grande attention. [less ▲]

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See detailÉtude de l'influence de la variabilité spatiale du sol et la variabilité temporelle du signal sismique sur la réponse sismique des ouvrages géotechniques
Ahayan, Sanae ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

Les travaux présentés dans ce mémoire s’attachent à étudier l’influence de la variabilité spatiale du sol et la variabilité temporelle du chargement sismique sur la réponse dynamique des ouvrages ... [more ▼]

Les travaux présentés dans ce mémoire s’attachent à étudier l’influence de la variabilité spatiale du sol et la variabilité temporelle du chargement sismique sur la réponse dynamique des ouvrages géotechnique. Nous focalisons notre étude au cas d’un sol en champ libre, compte tenu de la rareté des études portant sur les réponses sismiques probabilistes. Avant d’étudier les différentes analyses probabilistes effectuées dans ce stage, une revue de la littérature est présentée dans le chapitre I. Elle traite (i) les sources des incertitudes en géotechnique, (ii) la modélisation des paramètres incertains du sol et du chargement dynamique et (iii) les méthodes probabilistes et fiabilistes les plus universelles mais aussi, les plus récentes et performantes. La deuxième partie de ce mémoire est consacrée à la présentation de l'analyse probabiliste dynamique. La variabilité spatiale du sol et / ou la variabilité temporelle du chargement sismique ont été prises en compte. Dans ce cas, les paramètres du sol ont été modélisés par des champs aléatoires bidimensionnels et le signal sismique a été modélisé par un processus aléatoire. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification des dommages aux portes de l'écluse de Havré : Canal du Centre
Pire, Timothée ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

This work is about the identification of damage on sluices in Havré. A thorough study being already carried out on intermediate and downstream sluices, this report is about the upstream sluice. It is a ... [more ▼]

This work is about the identification of damage on sluices in Havré. A thorough study being already carried out on intermediate and downstream sluices, this report is about the upstream sluice. It is a miter gate on which several damage were noticed in 2004. Indeed, it shows some cracks, a door panel is twisted and some supports of knocker are worn. The origin of this damage is not found out yet. The goal of this work is so to determine the load cases that caused the listed damage. Therefore, the structure and the loads are modeled within the finite elements software Ansys. The analyse shows that, when the sluice is closed and withstands the hydrostatic pressure, the internal efforts are much lower than the resistance of the sluice. Contrariwise, stress peaks appear during opening and closing phases. Moreover, these peaks are located on weldings. A verification to fatigue shows that the life expectancy under normal maneuver loads is about 20 years while this sluice is being working for 40 years. The main load during the maneuvers is due the variation of water level either side of the sluice. This variation is taken equal to 10 cm in documents, but measures shows it can be greater. The twisting is certainly due to a blocking of the sluice during an opening and an oversizing of the cylinder. Eventually, the wear of knocker is due to maladjustment. Following this identification of damage, some proposition of reinforcement are proposed to increase the life expectancy up to 50 years. The modifications of the structure are related to the position of weldings, to sheet thickness, to the geometry of connections between cross rails and munions and to an increase of the steel grade. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de l'identité professionnelle des agents d'insertion du CPAS de Liège
Jacquet, Nicolas ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

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See detailEtude numérique du comportement à long terme des déchets dans un centre d’enfouissement technique
Hubert, Julien ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

L’explosion démographique des dernières décennies et la production gargantuesque de déchets accompagnant la consommation toujours croissante de la population font de la gestion des déchets un axe de ... [more ▼]

L’explosion démographique des dernières décennies et la production gargantuesque de déchets accompagnant la consommation toujours croissante de la population font de la gestion des déchets un axe de développement essentiel, pour lequel il reste encore beaucoup à faire. Les centres d’enfouissement technique (CET) font partie des alternatives disponibles afin de répondre à cette problématique. Il s’agit d’une solution peu élégante mais difficilement évitable pour des raisons économiques et parfois techniques ; le CET constitue l’outil de gestion privilégié dans les pays en voie de développement. Il ne faut pas croire pour autant que ce type d’ouvrage est délaissé dans nos régions. Bien que de plus de en plus de mesures soient prises afin de limiter les déchets pouvant être enfouis ou de favoriser le recyclage et la réutilisation de certains matériaux, l’enfouissement reste la solution la plus couramment appliquée. La gestion des centres d’enfouissement technique représente donc un pan important de la problématique des déchets. Le but de ce travail est de développer un modèle permettant de prédire les tassements à long terme dans les CET en tenant compte des différents phénomènes hydrauliques, mécaniques et biochimiques y prenant place. Les résultats d’un tel modèle permettraient, par exemple, de mieux évaluer la capacité de stockage des décharges rendant leur gestion plus simple et efficace. La première partie du travail consistera en une compilation des propriétés hydrauliques, thermiques, mécaniques et biochimiques des déchets présentes dans la littérature afin de référencer les paramètres nécessaires à la réalisation du modèle. Ensuite, une revue bibliographique des principaux modèles de comportement est présentée. Ce résumé permet de mieux appréhender les différents modèles existants et ceux sur lesquels nous nous baserons afin de réaliser nos simulations couplées. Finalement, la dernière partie du travail vise à réaliser le modèle de comportement multiphysique le plus complet. Ce dernier est construit étape par étape en commençant par l’implémentation d’un modèle hydraulique couplé, dans un second temps, à celui de transport d’Acide Gras Volatil (AGV). Les processus de génération/dégradation d’AGV et de production de chaleur sont ensuite introduits dans la simulation. Finalement, l’implémentation du modèle mécanique basé sur une loi de comportement mécanique de type CamClay est en mesure de prédire les tassements à long terme dans les centres d’enfouissement technique. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermining the characteristics of a free jet in 2-D by the SPH method
Lodomez, Maurine ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic method is a numerical method developed in 1977 to solve astrophysical problems. This numerical method is meshless, particle and Lagrangian and has been adapted to ... [more ▼]

The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic method is a numerical method developed in 1977 to solve astrophysical problems. This numerical method is meshless, particle and Lagrangian and has been adapted to hydraulic field. In this master’s thesis, the method is positioned relative to the classical numerical methods. The SPH formalism and its adaptation to hydraulic domain is exposed. The basics of SPH formalism are firstly the integral representation of a function and its derivative and secondly the particle approximation. The application of the SPH method to hydraulic domain is made by writting Navier Stokes equations in Lagrangian and SPH formalisms. Then, the specificities implemented in the code are tackled. These specificities are the state equation, the viscosity, the boundary conditions, the neighbors search and the problem initialization. Afterward, a modification of the initial didactic program, usable for constant domain in 3D, is performed. The changes are embodied to enable both 2D and 3D simulations with particle inflows and outflows. The validation of this modified code is performed thanks to four test cases. These test cases permit to validate the code and highlight the limitations of the method implemented such as kernel and the viscosity choices. Finally flows over sharped-crest weir have been simulated. These simulations were compared to results from the literature and experimental tests performed in the hydraulic laboratory. If some improvements are possible, such as injection and initialization of incoming particles, the results of these simulations show that the overall behavior of the free-jet is depicted. Indeed, the simulated jet admits a profile close to the experimental profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailL'épidémie au cinéma : de l'infiniment grand à l'infiniment petit
De Re, Margaux ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

« You know where this comes from, shaking hands? It was a way of showing a stranger you weren't carrying a weapon in the old days. » Contagion, Steven Soderbergh, 2011 For decades film directors, inspired ... [more ▼]

« You know where this comes from, shaking hands? It was a way of showing a stranger you weren't carrying a weapon in the old days. » Contagion, Steven Soderbergh, 2011 For decades film directors, inspired by numerous novelists, have exploited the epidemic in various ways: as a general historical context to tell another story (Isle of the Dead, Robson, 1945), as a medical topic at the heart of an investigation (Medical Investigation, Horwitch, 2004), or as a process allowing the proliferation of zombies (Resident Evil, Anderson, 2000) or even vampires (Daybreakers, Spierig, 2010). This work aims at theorising a fascinating and surprising topic – which goes as far as haunting public restrooms with the “Stop Germs: Wash Your Hands” signs – and to offer an overview of films that are very present on our screens and yet absent from scholarly works about cinema. By combining the analysis of photography with that of narrative, this research tries to address issues which may seem, at first sight, plain and transparent (showing the epidemic is showing contaminated individuals) but prove to be, in practice, much more complex (how can contamination be represented since this microscopic phenomenon is invisible to the eye?). The developed method leans on science and the ties between epidemic, contagion and contamination in order to establish an approach going from the more general (epidemic, which belongs to the global and is illustrated as far as the film’s synopsis) to the more particular (contamination, which falls under the interpersonal and is represented only in precise sequence of the film). Beyond questions about cinema or narrative in the strict sense, this final dissertation aims at exploring the other side of epidemic: the collective imaginary it creates. Indeed, the way cinema represents these phenomena indicates a certain conception of epidemic, which spreads from a film to the other, from a viewer to the other. [less ▲]

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See detailLe potentiel touristique du RAVeL en Wallonie
Evrard, Julien ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

* Mise en évidence des rôles touristiques et de loisirs des voies vertes, et compréhension des attentes des utilisateurs quant à celles-ci. * Mise en évidence de tronçons RAVeL pouvant être supports ... [more ▼]

* Mise en évidence des rôles touristiques et de loisirs des voies vertes, et compréhension des attentes des utilisateurs quant à celles-ci. * Mise en évidence de tronçons RAVeL pouvant être supports d’activités touristiques par méthodes géomatiques. * Analyse de corrélations entre les fréquentations des RAVeL et ses caractéristiques environnementales : discussion. * Implication : poursuivre la stratégie de développement et la récolte de données statistiques. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractéristiques Cliniques Et Impact Du Syndrome De Smith-Magenis : Étude d’une série de 47 patients
JACQUINET, Adeline ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

Le syndrome de Smith-Magenis est un syndrome délétionnel récurrent caractérisé par l’association de traits dysmorphiques, de troubles du comportement et de troubles du sommeil. Une déficience ... [more ▼]

Le syndrome de Smith-Magenis est un syndrome délétionnel récurrent caractérisé par l’association de traits dysmorphiques, de troubles du comportement et de troubles du sommeil. Une déficience intellectuelle de sévérité variable est fréquente mais non systématique. Il implique une prise en charge médicale multidisciplinaire du fait des possibles malformations associées, essentiellement cardiaques et rénales, et des éventuelles complications (scoliose, problèmes ORL, anomalies ophtalmologiques, problèmes dentaires, métaboliques et endocriniens). Dans cette étude rétrospective, nous reprenons et discutons les caractéristiques cliniques et diagnostiques d’une cohorte de 47 patients ainsi que les répercussions du syndrome en termes d’impact familial, de prise en charge et de scolarité. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la matière sombre par effet de mirage gravitationnel
Biernaux, Judith ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

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See detailLa croissance de l'emploi salarié marchand en Belgique entre 2006 et 2007
Reginster, Alexandre ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

The goal of the current study, over the growth of salaried employment in the market economy in Belgium between 2006 and 2007, is twofold: It first aims at identifying categories of firm which are highly ... [more ▼]

The goal of the current study, over the growth of salaried employment in the market economy in Belgium between 2006 and 2007, is twofold: It first aims at identifying categories of firm which are highly job-creating whether because of their great performance or because of their heavy weight in the national or regional employment. Thereafter, the study aims at identifying features of the salaried job market dynamics, and the way those dynamics contribute to the growth rates of geographical and sectorial entities. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la mise en place d’un module d’initiation à la Pleine Conscience destiné aux étudiants en Médecine Vétérinaire
Busoni, Valeria ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

Ce mémoire de Certificat Universitaire (formation continue) reprend les données relatives à la mise en place d'un module d'initiation à la pleine conscience à destination des étudiants en médecine ... [more ▼]

Ce mémoire de Certificat Universitaire (formation continue) reprend les données relatives à la mise en place d'un module d'initiation à la pleine conscience à destination des étudiants en médecine vétérinaire. [less ▲]

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See detailLes réécritures en prose de "Barlaam et Josaphat" au XIIIe siècle
Lambert, Adelaïde ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

Notre mémoire de master portait sur Les réécritures en prose de Barlaam et Josaphat au XIIIe siècle et proposait l’étude de deux versions de ce récit hagiographique qui donne à lire une vie de Bouddha ... [more ▼]

Notre mémoire de master portait sur Les réécritures en prose de Barlaam et Josaphat au XIIIe siècle et proposait l’étude de deux versions de ce récit hagiographique qui donne à lire une vie de Bouddha christianisée : d’une part, la version dite « champenoise » qui résulte d’une translation de la Vulgate latine relatant la légende et, d’autre part, la mise en prose d’une version francienne versifiée étant elle-même une traduction de la Vulgate. L’intérêt de ces deux textes réside tout d’abord dans leur époque de rédaction puisqu’ils sont parmi les premiers de la littérature d’oïl en prose qui, née à l’extrême fin du XIIe siècle, s’épanouit d’abord à travers la réécriture d’œuvres préexistantes. Ainsi, après avoir évalué la fidélité de chacun des remanieurs à la trame narrative, nous avons fourni une réflexion sur les notions de translations interlinguale et intralinguale. L’étude des aspects formels et stylistiques a entre autres révélé que la translation interlinguale, c’est-à-dire du latin vers l’ancien français, parvenait avec une certaine aisance à se détacher de sa source, tandis que la translation intralinguale, soit le dérimage, restait très proche de la version en vers de Barlaam et Josaphat. Mais si la traduction de textes latins est alors très répandue – car elle permet de mettre la littérature religieuse à la portée des illiterati –, la pratique de la mise en prose est rarissime à cette date, notamment parce qu’une source vernaculaire ne possède pas le prestige d’un antécédent latin. Deux hypothèses ont alors été envisagées à propos de la dépendance formelle à une source versifiée : elle serait liée soit à la composante sacrée des œuvres translatées que l’on ne remanierait qu’avec circonspection, soit à la proximité chronologique du texte-source et du texte-cible. Si notre étude a pu modestement aider à une meilleure connaissance du développement de la prose française, elle a également jeté certaines bases pour une enquête sur les techniques de dérimage à l’œuvre dans le corpus que constituent les six mises en prose hagiographiques produites au XIIIe siècle. Longtemps considérées comme des outils heuristiques, les vies de saints n’intéressent la critique littéraire que depuis quelques années. Adoptant à notre tour une approche littéraire relayée par une perspective sociologique, nous nous sommes focalisée sur la fonction occupée par chacun des textes dans la société médiévale du XIIIe siècle à partir de l’analyse de la figure de Josaphat. Le héros de l’œuvre hagiographique, en tant que trait d’union entre Dieu et les hommes, exerce une fonction médiatrice qui peut être annihilée lorsque la perfection ascétique du personnage l’éloigne trop fortement de la réalité du public des vies vernaculaires, qui ne peut plus s’identifier au saint. L’examen des aspects « admirables » et « imitables » de Josaphat, respectivement liés au rôle de vénération ou d’émulation visé par les œuvres, nous a permis d’opposer les deux translations et de formuler quelques hypothèses quant à l’horizon d’attente de leur public et à leur succès divergent. Par notre analyse, nous souhaitions également apporter une contribution à la réflexion sur le public, la fonction et le mode de réception des premières traductions françaises et des mises en prose « précoces ». La méthodologie que nous avons appliquée et qui consistait à mettre en regard deux proses, l’une « vernacularisée », l’autre « déversifiée », a permis la confrontation intéressante d’objets liés à deux projets de recherche différents : d’abord, le projet Transmédie, initié en 2004 par Claudio Galderisi, qui avait pour objectif d’établir un répertoire des traductions vernaculaires françaises de textes latins ; ensuite, le projet international du Nouveau Répertoire dont l’initiative revient à Maria Colombo Timelli. [less ▲]

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See detailNature et architecture : De la morphogenèse du vivant à la création numérique
Stals, Adeline ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

A l'heure où la révolution numérique s'est opérée, la place occupée par l'informatique dans les bureaux d'architecture a eu un impact important sur la conception et sur la forme en général. La production ... [more ▼]

A l'heure où la révolution numérique s'est opérée, la place occupée par l'informatique dans les bureaux d'architecture a eu un impact important sur la conception et sur la forme en général. La production architecturale est en parallèle influencée par l'avancée des connaissances biologiques voire biomimétiques, pour concevoir à la croisée des mathématiques, de l'informatique et de la biologie. Le numérique, supplantant les instruments traditionnels, engendre une rupture entre forme et structure, renforcée par la multidisciplinarité des processus de création. L'apparition de formes complexes pour répondre aux changements sociétaux, notamment observables dans l’œuvre de Frank Gehry, accentue la transmission d'informations de la conception à la réalisation. Marine Bagneris, au travers de sa thèse sur les morphologies non-standards, propose quant à elle, les pFormes comme outil et la morphologie structurale comme nouveau processus de formation architectural. L'architecte conçoit des protocoles plutôt que des formes. Est-ce une solution d'avenir? [less ▲]

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See detailDjango Unchained, Structure d'une polémique
Wintgens, Caroline ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

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See detailImage monstrueuse, image transgressive. Contribution à l’étude d’une monstruosité cinématographique
Jousten, Lison ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

L’enjeu principal du travail de fin d’études consiste à poser la monstruosité en termes de formes davantage qu’en termes de représentations . La monstruosité de l’image cinématographique serait finalement ... [more ▼]

L’enjeu principal du travail de fin d’études consiste à poser la monstruosité en termes de formes davantage qu’en termes de représentations . La monstruosité de l’image cinématographique serait finalement moins liée aux monstres qu’elle peut mettre en scène qu’à une violence toute transgressive et inhérente à sa nature. [less ▲]

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See detailRécupération de métaux stratégiques issus de diodes électroluminescentes (DELs)
Aatach, Mohamed ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

While Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are becoming increasingly widespread, recycling of LEDs is not yet commonplace. And yet, they contain a number of strategic metals as defined by the European Commission ... [more ▼]

While Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are becoming increasingly widespread, recycling of LEDs is not yet commonplace. And yet, they contain a number of strategic metals as defined by the European Commission. However, their composition and design in the broad sense are not always known. LEDs for General Lighting and LED Backlights will soon form a significant stream of waste which will be to be dealt with more effectively need if we do not want to lose strategic resources. This thesis provides an overview of technologies with relevance to LEDs and examines the recovery of strategic metals from end-of-life LEDs. The main material of the study focuses on a batch of SMD RGB LEDs. An elemental characterization consisting of a qualitative analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and a quantitative analysis by inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry was carried out. Once the composition of the study material was known, several tests of leaching in sulphuric acid were been made to assess the influences of the mode of release of the material, the addition of an ferric oxidant and the pH. Subsequently, it was determined that the prior crushing of the material, the presence of a ferric oxidant and the maintenance of a low pH offered the best conditions among those investigated for the solubilization of three elements of interest - copper, silver and gallium - while concentrating the gold in the filter cake. Some silver cementation tests by iron, copper or zinc powder were also undertaken. Finally, on basis of the carried out investigations, this work offers two methods for recovering of copper, silver, gallium and gold present in SMD RGB LEDs by an hydrometallurgical processes. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations spatiales et intraspécifiques des concentrations en mercure et en polluants organiques persistants chez le grand dauphin (Tursiops truncatus) dans le sud de la Floride
Damseaux, France ULg

Master's dissertation (2014)

L’environnement marin est le réceptacle de nombreuses pollutions d’origine anthropique. Certains prédateurs marins occupant un niveau trophique élevé, tel que le grand dauphin, Tursiops truncatus ... [more ▼]

L’environnement marin est le réceptacle de nombreuses pollutions d’origine anthropique. Certains prédateurs marins occupant un niveau trophique élevé, tel que le grand dauphin, Tursiops truncatus, présentent des concentrations importantes en polluants dans leurs tissus (e.g. mercure et polluants organiques persistants, POPs). Une population de grands dauphins de Floride est divisée en deux groupes. L’un d’entre eux vit dans la région de Key West en milieu marin, l’autre vit dans le parc national des Everglades caractérisé par l’enchevêtrement de rivières, de ruisseaux et de marécages. L’objectif global de ce travail est d’évaluer les niveaux de contamination en mercure total et en 55 composés organochlorés et polybromés (7 ICES PCBs, PBDEs, DDT, HCH, HCB, PXDD/Fs et PCBs dioxin-like) chez les grands dauphins de Key West et des Everglades et ainsi de comprendre l’influence de leur habitat sur leurs niveaux et leurs profils de contamination. Les polluants organiques et le mercure ont été analysés respectivement dans le lard et dans la peau des grands dauphins. Les analyses en PCBs, PBDEs, DDT, HCH, HCB ont été réalisées en GC-ECD, tandis que les analyses des dioxines et composés apparentés ont été réalisées en GC-MS. Globalement, les concentrations en polluants varient en fonction de l’habitat, du régime alimentaire et du sexe. Les 7 ICES PCBs sont les composés majoritairement retrouvés chez les grands dauphins de Key West (8229 ng.g-1 de lipides) et des Everglades (2289 ng.g-1 de lipides), tandis que les concentrations en PCDD/Fs sont très faibles (Key West : 104 pg.g-1 de lipides, Everglades : 102 pg.g-1 de lipides). Les concentrations en POPs sont significativement supérieures chez les individus de Key West excepté en DDT, HCB et PCDD/Fs où l’on n’observe aucune différence significative entre les dauphins de cette région et des Everglades. L’impact de la pollution sur l’environnement de Key West n’est pas à négliger. En effet, l’activité industrielle, la pollution atmosphérique, le tourisme etc. y sont fortement présents. Néanmoins, les concentrations en 7 ICES PCBs, PBDEs, DDT, HCH et HCB de ce groupe de Key West sont inférieures à celles quantifiées chez d’autres populations de grands dauphins en Floride et ailleurs dans le monde. Sur base de ces observations, ce travail, nous a permis d’émettre l’hypothèse que les plans d’action mis en place en Floride afin de protéger les écosystèmes de Key West et des Everglades étaient efficaces, expliquant la contamination modérée des dauphins étudiés dans ces régions. Contrairement aux polluants organiques, les concentrations en mercure total sont significativement supérieures chez les dauphins des Everglades (Key West : 2941 ng.g-1 de lipides, Everglades : 9314 ng.g-1 de lipides). Ces concentrations élevées sont dues à la présence abondante de mangroves. Ces écosystèmes ont une teneur en matière organique très importante et sont des producteurs et des exportateurs de mercure. De plus, le pH acide des mangroves facilite la solubilisation, la mobilité et la biodisponibilité du mercure dans l’écosystème. [less ▲]

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See detailMETHODOLOGIES FOR ESTIMATING REPEATABILITY AND REPRODUCIBILITY VARIANCES IN MULTIVARIATE DATABASES
Rozet, Eric ULg

Master's dissertation (2013)

Due to the huge amount of information available from spectra obtained from the analyses of biological samples using spectroscopic analytical techniques such as NMR or MIR/NIR multivariate analysis such as ... [more ▼]

Due to the huge amount of information available from spectra obtained from the analyses of biological samples using spectroscopic analytical techniques such as NMR or MIR/NIR multivariate analysis such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are required to understand the influence of major experimental factors. However, many experiments in these studies have more complexes variability structures than simply comparing several treatments: they may include time effects, biological effects such as diet or hormonal status, and other blocking factors or variability sources: samples stability, age of the individuals, pH of a buffer, days of acquisition, and so on. Analysis of these databases needs to extract from the spectral data matrix the variations linked to a change indicated in the factor of interest. However other sources of variability may impair this objective. This stresses the importance to discover the sources of variability of the spectral data using appropriate methodology. Classically, to analyze such data analysis of variance (ANOVA) or multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) is used. However direct application of these methodologies to spectrum obtained from structured experimental studies is inappropriate or impossible. More complex data analyses methodologies are required to understand the importance of the various factors implied in the experiments and to provide a measure of their variance components. Three related methodologies have been proposed to achieve this: ANOVA simultaneous component analysis (ASCA), ANOVA-PCA (APCA) and AComDim. The ASCA and APCA methodologies combine first an analysis of variance step (ANOVA) and then a PCA step. The AComDim one adds to the output of the ANOVA-PCA step a multi-block analysis. In addition, an extension of MANOVA is also available called 50-50 MANOVA and Principal variance component analysis (PVCA) has also been proposed. In this work, the usefulness and applicability of these advanced techniques to data analysis of NMR metabolomic spectra and MIR spectra are given to highlight the increase of knowledge gained and the estimation of main sources of variability arising in an experimental setup. In addition another methodology is proposed which combines PCA and Multivariate linear mixed modeling (PCA-MLMM). [less ▲]

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See detailLa citadelle de Namur : patrimoine fortifié comme enjeu patrimonial de développement durable
Van Laere, Bertrand ULg

Master's dissertation (2013)

Quels sont les éléments clefs de conception entrant en compte lors de la restauration paysagère d’un ancien domaine fortifié au relief accidenté dans l’optique du développement durable ? Dans l’usage ... [more ▼]

Quels sont les éléments clefs de conception entrant en compte lors de la restauration paysagère d’un ancien domaine fortifié au relief accidenté dans l’optique du développement durable ? Dans l’usage actuel, le mot « citadelle » est souvent mal employé pour désigner des forteresses de diverses époques. Le terme émerge pendant la Renaissance italienne et s’exporte vite, comme le bastion. Étymologiquement, citadella veut dire « petite cité, en référence à la grande, face à laquelle elle s’implante. Il n’y a pas de citadelle sans ville, et, généralement, sans ville forte. Elle participe de son système défensif et prend place sur un point stratégique. La ville de Namur, née au confluent de la Sambre et de la Meuse occupe un paysage d’une grande beauté. La citadelle, l’une des plus vastes d’Europe en cours de restauration, située sur l’éperon rocher du confluent sambro-mosan est un ensemble monumental unique en Belgique ainsi qu’un élément essentiel du paysage namurois. «Les places créées par Vauban sont un jeu sur la protection et l’ouverture, sur le caché et le montré. C’est un acte urbain sur la relation au temps et à l’espace du paysage» Jean Nouvel d’après sa préface de «Vauban, l’intelligence du territoire» (2006). [less ▲]

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See detailFaiRebel, du lait au projet équitable. Analyse du réseau socio-technique d'une innovation pour une transition à deux échelles
Feyereisen, Marlène ULg

Master's dissertation (2013)

Étude de cas focalisant sur le label de lait équitable Fairebel qui s'inscrit dans le projet de Lait Equitable chapeauté par l'EMB (European Milk Board). Retrace le contexte, la création et l'évolution de ... [more ▼]

Étude de cas focalisant sur le label de lait équitable Fairebel qui s'inscrit dans le projet de Lait Equitable chapeauté par l'EMB (European Milk Board). Retrace le contexte, la création et l'évolution de ce label de lait depuis ses origines pendant la crise du lait de 2009 jusqu'à aujourd'hui (2013). L'histoire de ce lait démontre comment une innovation, vue comme étant un objet technique, devient un réseau socio-technique. L'étude met également en avant les verrous du système agro-alimentaire qui bloquent toute innovation et explique comment les incohérences d'une innovation peuvent aussi devenir sa force car elles permettent de lui donner sa réalité (concrétisation). [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation des effets de la formation et de la supervision de services d’aide aux familles qui accompagnent des personnes atteintes d’une maladie de type Alzheimer
Marquet, Manon ULg

Master's dissertation (2013)

Introduction : Des interventions peuvent réduire le risque que des aidants professionnels qui accompagnent des personnes âgées (atteintes ou non de démence) développent des attitudes âgistes, un sentiment ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Des interventions peuvent réduire le risque que des aidants professionnels qui accompagnent des personnes âgées (atteintes ou non de démence) développent des attitudes âgistes, un sentiment d’incompétence, une insatisfaction et un épuisement professionnels. Ces interventions sont néanmoins essentiellement destinées aux aidants en milieu institutionnel. Objectifs : (1) vérifier que des aidants professionnels à domicile avec un niveau d’études peu élevé présentent une vision négative du vieillissement et une méconnaissance de la maladie d’Alzheimer et qu’à cette vision conjuguée à cette méconnaissance sont liés un faible sentiment d’efficacité et une satisfaction professionnelle moindre et (2) évaluer, au niveau de ces différents paramètres, l’efficacité d’une intervention destinée à ces aidants. Méthodologie : 17 aides familiales ont bénéficié d’une intervention visant à améliorer leurs connaissances sur les démences et à les aider à mettre en place des stratégies de résolution de problèmes face aux difficultés rencontrées dans leur pratique, et ceci, afin de favoriser une vision moins stigmatisante de la maladie d’Alzheimer. Différents auto-questionnaires ont été complétés par les participantes avant et après l’intervention. Résultats : Indépendamment de leur faible niveau d’éducation, les aides familiales ont des attitudes plutôt positives envers le vieillissement et des connaissances satisfaisantes sur la maladie d’Alzheimer. Lorsque ces dernières augmentent, elles sont reliées à une satisfaction moindre vis-à-vis du contexte professionnel. La diminution des stéréotypes âgistes est quant à elle reliée à une diminution du sentiment de compétence. Quant à l’intervention, elle permet de diminuer l’âgisme des aides familiales, d’améliorer leurs connaissances sur la maladie d’Alzheimer, leur sentiment de compétence et leur satisfaction vis-à-vis de leurs tâches professionnelles. Conclusion : Les relations initialement prédites entre les variables ne sont pas toutes présentes et sont parfois contraires à nos prédictions, ce qui peut s’expliquer, en partie, par les questionnaires que nous avons employés. Quant à l’intervention, elle est efficace puisqu’elle atteint ses objectifs de départ. Ces résultats encouragent non seulement la formation des aidants professionnels à domicile mais aussi l’évaluation de l’efficacité des interventions proposées, à la fois auprès des aidants professionnels, informels et des personnes accompagnées. [less ▲]

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