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See detailDesign of Muong Chuoi, Kinh-Lo and Thu-Bo Barriers (report Jan 2011)
Rigo, Philippe ULg

Report (2011)

Consulting activities for the water level control for flood protection of HCMC area Design of Muong Chuoi, Kinh-Lo and Thu-Bo Barriers ICMB-9, HCMC, Vietnam

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See detailOptimization study of the Scheldt ock gate on the cross section C with LBR-5 software
Rigo, Philippe ULg; Yerna, Olivier ULg

Report (2011)

Report of the optimisation (least weight) performed on the lock gates (Port of Antwerp)

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See detailFINAL REPORT PHASE II "Impact of Phenology and Environmental Conditions on BVOC Emissions from Forest Ecosystems" "IMPECVOC"
Dewulf, Jo; Joó, Eva; Van Langenhove, Herman et al

Report (2011)

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See detailModélisation numérique de l'expérience SDZ pour l'Andra
Pardoen, Benoît ULg; Charlier, Robert ULg; Radu, Jean-Pol ULg

Report (2011)

An in situ ventilation test (SDZ) is performed by the French national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory. The aim is to characterise the ... [more ▼]

An in situ ventilation test (SDZ) is performed by the French national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory. The aim is to characterise the effect of the desaturation and possible resaturation of the damaged zone located around an experimental gallery due to controlled ventilation imposed in this gallery. Hydro and hydro-mechanical numerical modellings are realised in order to acquire a better understanding of clayey rock behaviour and transfers occurring during the test. [less ▲]

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See detailAppui à l'Assemblée provinciale de Bandundu
Kabamba, Bob ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailDioxin2011 Highlights
Focant, Jean-François ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailIntroduction aux applications des ondelettes
Charles, Catherine ULg

Report (2011)

Cette note fait suite à une note antérieure. Son objectif est de faire prendre conscience au lecteur de la large étendue d'applications des ondelettes. Elle se découpe en deux parties. La première ... [more ▼]

Cette note fait suite à une note antérieure. Son objectif est de faire prendre conscience au lecteur de la large étendue d'applications des ondelettes. Elle se découpe en deux parties. La première illustre la théorie des ondelettes aux moyens d'applications tournées vers la statistique. La deuxième se tourne vers les applications en traitement du signal et de l'image. [less ▲]

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See detailRésultats des analyses en ergonomie cognitive et architecturologie des expérimentations en coprésence et à distance outillée
Ben Rajeb, Samia ULg; Lecourtois, Caroline; Guéna, François

Report (2011)

Cette dernière partie de notre recherche rend compte des analyses architecturologiques menées sur les données recueillies à l’occasion d’expérimentations réalisées en laboratoire selon le protocole ... [more ▼]

Cette dernière partie de notre recherche rend compte des analyses architecturologiques menées sur les données recueillies à l’occasion d’expérimentations réalisées en laboratoire selon le protocole présenté par nos partenaires du Limsi-CNRS dans le livrable précédent (T24). Notre étude architecturologique ne s’intéressant qu’à la collaboration distante outillée, nous nous sommes alors focalisés exclusivement sur les enregistrements concernant les expérimentations distantes via le SDC.Cette partie est constituée de trois chapitres visant à caractériser les mécanismes cognitifs spécifiques à des situations de conception architecturale collaborative à distance : • Le premier chapitre expose les méthodologies architecturologiques, en termes de classes d’opérations et d’opérations de conception ; • Le second chapitre comporte deux sous-chapitres : - le premier chapitre présente un exemple détaillé d’une analyse architecturologique appliquée à une de ces expérimentations; - le deuxième expose les principaux résultats issus des analyses architecturologiques de l’ensemble des expérimentations ; • Le troisième chapitre synthétise l’ensemble de ces résultats sous la forme d’un modèle théorique permettant de comprendre les spécificités d’une situation de conception architecturale collaborative à distance outillée par le SDC. [less ▲]

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See detailNZEB Definitions: current market status and certification in Belgium
Mlecnik; Attia, Shady ULg

Report (2011)

The recast of the European Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requires the uptake of a definition of so called ‘nearly zero energy’ buildings (nZEB). Belgium was first to set a definition for a ... [more ▼]

The recast of the European Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requires the uptake of a definition of so called ‘nearly zero energy’ buildings (nZEB). Belgium was first to set a definition for a ‘net zero energy house’ (NZEB) in 2009. Every year the definition is revised for consistency with shortcomings and emerging issues. The Belgian definition raised many questions regarding (1) the net balance, (2) the application and calculation method (3) the indoor air quality and comfort, (4) energy use included in the balance, (5) the type of buildings, (6) the accepted renewable energy supply options, (7) the quality assurance and monitoring and (8) energy storage and the connection to the energy infrastructure. Therefore, the paper presents a review on the current Belgian definition and its market status in comparison with the international context. The aim of the paper is to review current definition discussions and pave the way to a more consistent definition. [less ▲]

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See detailRegM - Registre de Morbidité
Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg; Franckh, Marc; Froidcoeur, Xavier ULg

Report (2011)

REGM is a research program about the feasibility of a Belgian morbidity registration system, extracted from existing electronic information systems (EMR) of general practitioners. REGM is part of a larger ... [more ▼]

REGM is a research program about the feasibility of a Belgian morbidity registration system, extracted from existing electronic information systems (EMR) of general practitioners. REGM is part of a larger program which aims to enhance the development of primary health care and improve the quality of care. This part is aimed at the description of three experiments: in France, Switzerland and the Netherlands. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport annuel du Projet SEE - Design Participatif
Parotte, Céline ULg; Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Fallon, Catherine ULg

Report (2011)

Le projet SEE (Système d’Échanges Électroniques) a pour objectif général le développement d'un Système d'Échanges Électroniques sur base d'une collaboration entre différents partenaires universitaires et ... [more ▼]

Le projet SEE (Système d’Échanges Électroniques) a pour objectif général le développement d'un Système d'Échanges Électroniques sur base d'une collaboration entre différents partenaires universitaires et une entreprise privée. Dans ce cadre, le Spiral a pour vocation la mise en œuvre de méthodologies de recherche permettant de co-construire un système de vote électronique (dans le cadre des élections sociales) avec les futurs utilisateurs de celui-ci. [less ▲]

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See detailHandling complex risks issues in the domain of environment and health - SCOPE
Torfs, Rudi; Zwetkoff, Catherine ULg; Fallon, Catherine ULg et al

Report (2011)

This research report has its origin in the notion that classical risk assessment paradigms no longer suffice to deal with complex, uncertain and ambiguous risks. Risk assessment was developed as a ... [more ▼]

This research report has its origin in the notion that classical risk assessment paradigms no longer suffice to deal with complex, uncertain and ambiguous risks. Risk assessment was developed as a scientific tool to tackle uncertain consequences of human activities by organizing, evaluating, integrating and presenting scientific information to inform decision-making. Over the years, this type of risk assessment has proved effective in protecting public health and the environment from major environmental hazards with high relative risks. In the modern „risk society‟ classical risk assessment fails to handle complex risks characterized by radical uncertainty and a plurality of legitimate perspectives and values. Public authorities have to deal with issues/risks were facts are uncertain and values are contested. To answer to the increased demands of policymakers and the public for guidance on risk management new processes for the governance of these risks need to be developed. Weberian bureaucratic structures and forms of cooperation are working in a logic of specialisation of work, where distribution of information and knowledge, structures of decisions and allocation of responsibilities are organised ab initio in a stable organisational frame. Such a structure is not capable of resisting to the emergence of new risks which are often not identified as such at start and require a more integrative form of assessment, integrating inter-disciplinary collaboration on a specific policy problem that is complex, uncertain, perhaps unlimited in temporal and spatial scale, and interlinked with other phenomena. If the frame of reflexivity (Beck, 2003) is adopted, we thus have to recognise that a global mastering of these risks is not possible. What is now requested is the settlement of conditions for another type of open debate. Experiments in new forms of public participation in the management of technological developments (like e.g. citizen panels on long-term storage of nuclear waste1, or on cars and health2) already inspired the public administrators in their search for new procedural forms of decision making in areas of uncertainty. For a certain category of risks inclusion of the public, next to industrial stakeholders, organised environmental interest groups and governmental agencies and administrations is warranted, to integrate different opinions and values and to develop adequate policies. Network governance should be developed, where stakeholders are invited to speak up and where power structures are reconsidered and flattened. Here the authorities are recommended to exercise their capacities not as a centre of knowledge and top-down decision, but as a facilitator for communication and collaboration within networking structures, mobilising numerous experts and stakeholders, including the population itself (Gilbert, 2002), to develop new options which are socially acceptable and technically efficient (Fallon et al., 2008a & b). This requires a different mindset where the plurality of frames and fluidity of boundaries; the need for contextualisation; the construction of unstable temporary networks, the plurality of rationalities and the inherent uncertainties, social and technical (Callon, 1986) of the issues considered. As uncertainties are recognised, scientists are not anymore expected to close the controversy but rather to contribute to the technical quality of the process. The public decision-making process (DMP) should be designed to organise the conditions for an optimal tradeoff between scientific soundness and social acceptability of decisions, in a context where the precautionary principle is relevant. The key issue, framing or “structuring the research questions”, is a method for deciding how to manage scientific uncertainty. From literature review and past studies, we posit that a better quality DMP could be achieved by using tools for an integrated and comparative risk assessment and management. These approaches rely on interdisciplinary risk assessment – relevant soft and hard sciences are engaged together into the knowledge production process rather than mobilized side by side. Concretely, it involves designing the steps or sequences of the process and selecting/developing/adapting risk assessment and management tools. More specific, within the environment and health arena there is limited experience with these new concepts of integrated assessments (Briggs, 2008). Therefore case studies on various environment and health issues were performed to evaluate current integrated risk assessment practices, multi-level precautionary approaches and communication of complex risks. Different tools as Delphi, scenario workshop, etc. were used to analyse the issues at stake. The development of an integrated approach in risk assessment requires cooperation across policy domains and hierarchical structures. In the field of air pollution a science-policy workshop confirmed that in the domain of air quality policy, public servants communicate well with researchers from scientific institutions. The protagonists in Flemish air quality policy have a common scientific background and are technical experts. This observation puts into question a common discourse postulating that there is a „communication problem' or 'gap' between 'researchers' and 'policymakers'. This discourse as a description of a state of affairs does not suit empirical reality, and needs to be reformulated in more precise terms. If there is a communication gap, it is not to be situated between public administration („policymakers‟) and researchers („scientists‟), who share the same overall concerns, but between public administrations and ministerial cabinets. The analysis of risks related to electromagnetic fields (EMF), showed how the precautionary principle is reinterpreted differently at each different political level (European, Belgian, Wallonia, Regional) in order to better integrate the local institutional and political environment. In most cases, when this principle is put at the foreground, its use is mainly symbolic and incantatory. When implementing policies it does not seem to respond to some precautionary approach, but rather to the institutional dynamics which characterise each political level. We observed the reinforcement of the European role in the field of health & environment: in attempts to underline institutional cooperation at the federal level in Belgium and to reinforce the authority of the regional government on the Walloon territory. From this case study it is learnt that the new deliberative spaces to be developed should not be embedded in the dominant institutional structures. A structure such as promoted in the wake of "Technology assessment" (Delvenne, 2011) is capable of conciliating production of knowledge and uncertainties (the science pole) with the plurality of social perceptions (the civic pole) and the specific dynamics of the relevant polity (the political pole). New deliberative spaces should be capable of developing the basis for integrated and comparative approach for emerging issues with due attention to its political and institutional dimensions, while maintaining enough distance with the dominant frames and logics. Recently the Flemish administration on Environment, Nature & Energy proposed a note (framework) to deal with uncertain risks. The proposed framework will be tested in a pilot study for potential risks related to non-ionising electromagnetic radiation, and can later be extended to other risks. In a case study on Bisphenol-A (BPA), multi-level political communication was analysed. Political decisions were taken without socio-technical debate (Callon, 1986). The BPA issue was not very high on the social or political agenda in Belgium. There was no crisis, no strong pressure form NGO's. The question was managed first by the European authorities (EFSA & European Commission). The Belgian institutions were waiting for the European position. As the political decision did not encounter a strong contestation from the industry, this was an easy step for the political authorities, in Belgium and at the European level, to symbolically address the issue while avoiding considering the real uncertainties. When the decision was taken to ban the use of BPA in polycarbonate baby bottles, it was a political decision taken with the support of the scientific bodies (Superior Health Council) but without being embedded in any social debate (what about risks related to the chemicals which may substitute BPA?). It meant that the whole of uncertainties on the extent of risks related to the multiple exposures to different endocrine disruptors could not be put at the foreground in a public socio-technical debate. These case studies on the interplay with science, policy and stakeholders, on the framing of an environmental health policy problem, and on the management of complex risks (air pollution, EMF, BPA) contribute to recommendations on their governance. The question then becomes: is it possible to organize a precautionary decision making process to deal with different legitimate frames and the necessary trade-offs when considering policy alternatives? Concretely it is advised to pay attention to the role of a focal point in the process, potentially taken up by public administrations, to the co-production, availability and organisation of knowledge and information, and to the progress of the process. Above all it is important to set up a platform for issue framing and problem definition to highlight key factors that need to be assessed: - Examine the policy and stakeholder learning network related to a specific issue, with special attention to policy domains that are affected by or are affecting the environmental and health issue at stake. Specify who has interests in the issue and who should be involved. An efficient stakeholder network analysis is important for the further progress of the DMP. define who is allowed to take part in the process across different policy areas - Examine the information database before setting up a more integrative approach, both from a scientific (including uncertainties) and technical (alternatives, CBA analysis) point of view and from the side of concerned stakeholders. Policy makers acquire information from different inputs from science, stakeholder organisations, socio-economic actors and the public at large, as well as from administrations and staff members, and are conscious of the structural and constitutional constraints. It is clear that a balanced process of information gathering that is transparent, contributes to better decision making. - Initiate and manage the process: find out who will carry the process, set up a series of interactions between administrations, between administrations and cabinets, between administrations and research, between administrations, research and the public. Usable and meaningful available information on the issue should be communicated clearly to all stakeholders. It is innovative to look at how stakeholders increase their knowledge through different inputs and through communication, information and interaction. - Iterate where needed: information gained in one dialogue should be fed back into other fora. An equilibrium between acceptability – tolerability – uncertainty should be established. - Move forward / conclude. In the total policy cycle the conclusion or decision may be revised, when (1) monitoring of implementation and following evaluation is considered as negative; (2) new knowledge / experience / issues have to take into account. - Ensure an efficient and socially appropriate allocation of the resources and an adequate management of residual risks. Last but not least, in a precautionary approach it is also required, to contribute to the public trust in the decision making process and to construct social acceptance of the final decision. Generally, a precautionary decision making process should be considered as a double-pronged learning dynamics: on one side, the authorities are required to better take into account the multiple frames which abound in our pluralist societies when organising the conditions of political trade-offs for the governance of risks. On the other side, the citizens should have the possibility to, not only understand, but also adopt the decision and its consequences and to conform to its implementation. It is important to develop specific communication processes to successfully implement these two faces of a precautionary approach in the governance of risks, while ensuring this dual learning process. New procedures are currently developed which could support the communication dynamics for promoting multiple frames and comparing openly different alternatives (e.g. open process workshop; atelier scenarios; Delphi). [less ▲]

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See detailDeuxième rapport intermédiaire - Recherche ANACO : analyse et opérationnalisation de la problématique du confinement et de la mise à l’abri en Belgique.
Thiry, Aline ULg; Vanhaeren, Stéphanie ULg; Geukens, Nick ULg et al

Report (2011)

Ce deuxième rapport intermédiaire s’inscrit dans la première phase participative de la recherche ANACO. Pour rappel, cette recherche d’une durée de douze mois a pour objectif principal d’analyser la ... [more ▼]

Ce deuxième rapport intermédiaire s’inscrit dans la première phase participative de la recherche ANACO. Pour rappel, cette recherche d’une durée de douze mois a pour objectif principal d’analyser la problématique de la mise à l’abri/confinement en Belgique et d’aboutir à un plan d’action qui sera mis à la disposition des autorités et des acteurs de la gestion de crise et de la planification d’urgence. La première phase de la recherche, qui avait fait l’objet du précédent rapport, avait permis d’établir un état des lieux à la fois juridique et philosophique de la problématique de la mise à l’abri/confinement en Belgique. Elle consistait en une étude de la littérature accompagnée d’entretiens exploratoires. La phase participative de ce rapport permet d’approfondir les points-clefs relevés lors de la première phase exploratoire à l’aide d’une enquête de type Delphi. Ce rapport contient une première analyse des réponses au Delphi en ligne. Une structuration et une analyse plus poussée de ces résultats ainsi qu’une confrontation avec le public cible feront l’objet d’une troisième phase de recherche. Le rapport commence par un exposé de la méthodologie utilisée et une brève présentation du logiciel implémentant la méthodologie Delphi Mesydel et des caractérisques de l’échantillon. Les détails de l’enquête sont exposés en annexe. Dans un second temps, il sera exposé la synthèse des résultats obtenus lors des deux tours du Delphi en ligne ainsi qu’une brève présentation de l’étude de cas aux Pays-Bas. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvanced exploitation of Ground-Based measurements for Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Applications "AGACC"
De Mazière, Martine; De Backer, Hugo; Carleer, Michel et al

Report (2011)

We live in an era in which human activities are causing significant changes to the atmospheric environment which result in local to global consequences on the ecosystems. Changes in the atmospheric ... [more ▼]

We live in an era in which human activities are causing significant changes to the atmospheric environment which result in local to global consequences on the ecosystems. Changes in the atmospheric composition impact our climate via chemical and dynamical feedback mechanisms; in many instances they also affect air quality, and the health of the biosphere. Monitoring and understanding those changes and their consequences is fundamental to establish adequate actions for adaptation to and mitigation of the environmental changes. Furthermore, after implementation of regulatory measures like the Montreal Protocol, it is necessary to verify whether the measures are effective. This can only be achieved if we have adequate detection methods and a reliable long record of a series of key geophysical parameters. Thus the AGACC project contributes to the provision of basic new knowledge regarding the atmospheric composition and its changes, based on advanced groundbased monitoring, in combination with satellite and numerical modelling data. Its results are integrated in ongoing international research programmes. The general objective of AGACC has been to improve and extend the groundbased detection capabilities for a number of climate-related target species and, based hereupon, analyse past and present observations to derive new information about the atmospheric composition, its variability and long-term changes. Despite the advent of a growing and more performant fleet of Earth Observation satellites, ground-based observations are still indispensable to (1) guarantee long-term continuity, homogeneity and high quality of the data, and (2) to underpin the satellite data for calibration and (long-term) validation. A first target gas is atmospheric water vapour. It is the key trace gas controlling weather and climate. It is also the most important greenhouse gas in the Earth’s atmosphere. Its amount and vertical distribution are changing, but how and why? Especially in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere, the radiative effects of changes in the water vapour are significant and should be quantified. The measurement of water vapour is a hot topic since several years. It is a challenge, because water vapour exhibits a large gradient in its concentration when going from the ground to the stratosphere, and because it is highly variable in time and space. For example, we have found that the time scale of the variations of the total water vapour amount at Jungfraujoch is in the order of minutes. In AGACC, we have therefore investigated various experimental techniques to measure the concentration of water vapour in the atmosphere, focusing on the total column as well as on the vertical distribution in the troposphere up to the lower stratosphere. The retrieval of water vapour vertical profiles and total columns from ground-based FTIR data has been initiated at three very different stations where correlative data for verification are available, namely Ukkel (± sea level, mid-latitude), Ile de La Réunion (± sea level, tropical) and Jungfraujoch (high altitude, mid-latitude), with promising results. In particular, at Jungfraujoch, it has been demonstrated that the precision of the FTIR integrated water vapour (IWV) measurements is of order 2%. The capability to retrieve individual isotopologues of water vapour, and to monitor their daily and diurnal variations, has also been demonstrated. This could open new ways to study in the future the role of water vapour in the radiative balance, the global circulation, precipitation etc. We also started joint exploitation of ground-based FTIR and satellite IASI data for water vapour and its isotopologues, in order to exploit fully the potential of the existing instrumentation. A correction method for the radiosoundings at Ukkel has been successfully implemented, resulting in a homogeneous and reliable time series from 1990 to 2008 from which trends in upper troposphere humidity (UTH) and tropopause characteristics have been derived. One observes a rising UTH until September 2001, followed by a decline, accompanied by a descent and heating of the tropopause up to the turning point and an ascent and cooling afterwards. The changes after September 2001 in the upper troposphere can be explained by surface heating and convective uplift. At Jungfraujoch, one does not observe any significant trend in the total water vapour abundance above the station over the 1988-2010 time period, although significant positive summer and negative winter trends have been detected. We have made a quantitative statistical comparison between ground-based FTIR, CIMEL, GPS and integrated (corrected) radio sounding measurements of the IWV at Ukkel. This work is important to better characterize the different sensors in order to exploit together different observations made by different instruments. A second target species is atmospheric aerosol. There is a very large variety of aerosol both from natural or anthropogenic origin. One of the reasons why they are so important is that they affect the optical properties of the atmosphere. In particular, it has been demonstrated in previous studies that the aerosols have a large impact on the quantity of harmful UV-B radiation received at the Earth’s surface. The latest IPCC Report also stressed that the radiative forcing caused by atmospheric aerosols is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the total radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Better monitoring capabilities of aerosol properties can therefore improve our understanding and forecasting of the atmospheric processes and evolution, and in particular of UV-B and climate changes. Several measurement techniques are now operational in the AGACC consortium for the ground-based monitoring of aerosol properties. These are the Brewer spectrometer and CIMEL observations at Ukkel, the latter contributing also to the AERONET network since July 2006, and the newly developed MAXDOAS observations. Unlike CIMEL and Brewer measurements, that provide the total Aerosol Optical Depth, it has been demonstrated that the MAXDOAS measurements also provide additional information about the vertical distribution of the aerosol extinction in the lowest kilometres of the troposphere. A better understanding of the ultimate capabilities of MAXDOAS aerosol remote sensing has been gained through participation to the international CINDI campaign (Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments ) in summer 2009. The combination of Brewer, CIMEL and MAXDOAS instruments gives us a remote-sensing dataset that will enable a more comprehensive characterization of the tropospheric aerosol optical properties. The usefulness of these aerosol observations has already been demonstrated in the improvement of the UVindex predictions for the general public. Another application is their use as input data in the retrieval of vertical profiles of tropospheric pollutants from MAXDOAS measurements, like tropospheric NO2 and formaldehyde. Third we have focused on a few climate-related trace gases. Changing greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations directly affect the radiative budget of the atmosphere, and therefore climate. But many species known as pollutants like carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons, - often related to fossil fuel or biomass burning -, also affect climate through their role in chemical reactions that produce tropospheric ozone, which is a well-known greenhouse gas, or that modify the lifetime of gases like methane, or the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. Therefore in AGACC, we have focused on the measurement of a number of trace gases that are subject to changing concentrations, that directly or indirectly affect climate, and that are either difficult to monitor or that have not yet been measured from the ground. We have included attempts to observe distinctly some isotopologues, because the isotopic ratios observed in an airmass provide information on its history, and because the FTIR solar absorption measurements provide a rather unique capability hereto. The investigated species are the isotopologues of CH4 and CO, and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), as examples of biomass burning tracers, some hydrocarbons like formaldehyde (HCHO), ethylene (C2H4) and acetylene (C2H2), and HCFC-142b, a replacement product for CFCs and a greenhouse gas. In many cases, retrieval strategies had to be adapted when going from one site to another with different atmospheric conditions, especially when the local humidity and abundances are very different as is the case between Jungfraujoch (dry, high altitude, mid-latitude) and Ile de La Réunion (humid, low altitude, low latitude). Still we have been able to show the feasibility of retrieving particular trace gas information even under difficult conditions. Many of our results have been compared to correlative data, to validate the approach and to gain complementary information. It is also important to note that the retrieval strategies developed in AGACC have regularly been presented to the global Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) UV-Vis and Infrared communities and have often been adopted by others or even proposed for adoption as a standard in the community (e.g., for hydrogen cyanide (HCN)). In particular: We have been able to study the seasonal variations of HCN at the Jungfraujoch and at Ile de La Réunion, and to show the dominant impact of biomass burning. Formaldehyde was studied in much detail at Ukkel, Jungfraujoch and Ile de la Réunion. The challenge for detection at Jungfraujoch is the small abundance (about 10 times smaller than at Ukkel and Ile de La Réunion); a particular observation strategy was developed successfully, resulting in a time series that already shows the day-to-day and seasonal variations. At Ile de La Réunion, comparisons of FTIR, MAXDOAS, satellite and model data have (1) shown the good agreement between the various data sets, but also, (2), the variability of HCHO (diurnal, seasonal, day-to-day), and (3), thanks to the complementarities of the various data sets, they have enabled us to learn more about the long-range transport of Non-methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCS, precursors of HCHO) and deficiencies in the models. It was shown that fast, direct transport of NMVOCS from Madagascar has a significant impact on the HCHO abundance and its variability at Ile de La Réunion, and that this is underestimated in the model. Significant progress was made as to the detection of 13CH4 and CH3D from ground-based FTIR observations, both at Jungfraujoch and Ile de La Réunion. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a d13C data set is derived from ground-based FTIR observations. More work is needed to improve the CH3D retrieval at Ile de La Réunion, and to interpret the results, in combination with models. Also for the first time, 12CO and 13CO have been retrieved individually at Jungfraujoch. The d13C time series shows significant seasonal and interannual changes. As to the hydrocarbon ethylene, it is shown that it can be detected at Jungfraujoch only in spectra at low solar elevation, given its small atmospheric abundance. Regarding acetylene, the observed time series at Jungfraujoch and Ile de La Réunion show clear seasonal variations and enhancements due to the impact of biomass burning events, correlated with enhancements in CO, C2H6 and HCN. It is not clear yet whether we can reliably retrieve the concentration of HCFC- 142b, a replacement product that is increasing strongly in the troposphere. New line parameters for the interfering species HFC-134a are required to confirm/infirm the preliminary results. This highlights again the importance of the laboratory work for providing such parameters. Improved line parameters have been obtained for water vapour and its isotopologues, ethylene and formic acid. These AGACC results have been integrated in the international spectroscopic databases. We also showed that line intensities available around 2096 cm–1 for the 13C16O isotopologue of carbon monoxide in the HITRAN database seem to be accurate to 2%. We failed to improve line intensities for the 13.6 μm region of acetylene. The new data sets that have been derived in AGACC from FTIR and MAXDOAS observations have been archived in the NDACC data centre, where they are available for users (generally modelers and satellite teams). In addition, they are stored locally and are available to users upon request. AGACC results have been reported to the international scientific community, via the literature, via integration in geophysical or spectroscopic databases, and via participation to international research initiatives like the Atmospheric Water Vapour in the Climate System (WAVACS) Cost Action, the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) Working Group on Atmospheric Water Vapour, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) project, the International CINDI campaign, etc. The results have already found important scientific applications. A few examples are worth mentioning: the re-evaluation of methane emissions in the tropics from SCIAMACHY based on the new H2O spectroscopy, and the improved retrievals of HCOOH from the satellite experiments ACE-FTS and IASI, and from the ground. In the longer-term, the AGACC results will no doubt benefit the research in atmospheric sciences –in particular in the monitoring of its composition changes–, which is the fundamental basis of environmental assessment reports for supporting policy makers. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust maximum weighted independent-set problems on interval graphs
Talla Nobibon, Fabrice ULg; Leus, Roel

Report (2011)

We study the maximum weighted independent-set problem on interval graphs with uncertainty on the vertex weights. We use the absolute robustness criterion and the min-max regret criterion to evaluate ... [more ▼]

We study the maximum weighted independent-set problem on interval graphs with uncertainty on the vertex weights. We use the absolute robustness criterion and the min-max regret criterion to evaluate solutions. For a discrete scenario set, we nd that the problem is NP-hard for each of the robustness criteria; we also provide pseudo-polynomial time algorithms when there is a constant number of scenarios and show that the problem is strongly NP-hard when the set of scenarios is unbounded. When the scenario set is a Cartesian product, we prove that the problem is equivalent to a maximum weighted independent-set problem on the same interval graph but without uncertainty for the rst objective function and that the scenario set can be reduced for the second objective function. [less ▲]

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See detailPROJECT SCHEDULING WITH MODULAR PROJECT COMPLETION ON A BOTTLENECK RESOURCE
Coolen, Kris; Wenchao, Wei; Talla Nobibon, Fabrice ULg et al

Report (2011)

In this paper, we model a research-and-development project as consisting of several modules, with each module containing one or more activities. We examine how to schedule the activities of such a project ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we model a research-and-development project as consisting of several modules, with each module containing one or more activities. We examine how to schedule the activities of such a project in order to maximize the expected profit when the activities have a probability of failure and when an activity’s failure can cause its module and thereby the overall project to fail. A module succeeds when at least one of its constituent activities is successfully executed. All activities are scheduled on a scarce resource that is modeled as a single machine. We describe various policy classes, establish the relationship between the classes, develop exact algorithms to optimize over two different classes (one dynamic program and one branch-and-bound algorithm), and examine the computational performance of the algorithms on two randomly generated instance sets. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction aux ondelettes
Charles, Catherine ULg

Report (2011)

Cette note technique à caractère mathématique est une introduction aux ondelettes, un des outils d'analyse du signal. Son objectif est d'initier le lecteur à la théorie des ondelettes. Elle se découpe en ... [more ▼]

Cette note technique à caractère mathématique est une introduction aux ondelettes, un des outils d'analyse du signal. Son objectif est d'initier le lecteur à la théorie des ondelettes. Elle se découpe en deux parties. La première pose les bases théoriques des ondelettes. La deuxième partie traite des logiciels implémentés pour travailler avec les ondelettes. [less ▲]

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See detailNote synthétique sur l'évaluation et le calcul de la vulnérabilité des ménages au Niger : février 2011
Andres, Ludovic ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Report (2011)

L’analyse de la vulnérabilité alimentaire suscite une attention toute particulière des bailleurs de fond. En effet, depuis 1990, l’analyse et l’évaluation de celle-ci permet aux différentes institutions ... [more ▼]

L’analyse de la vulnérabilité alimentaire suscite une attention toute particulière des bailleurs de fond. En effet, depuis 1990, l’analyse et l’évaluation de celle-ci permet aux différentes institutions nationales et internationales présentes au Niger d’élaborer leurs stratégies, de cibler les populations ou zones bénéficiaires de leurs interventions ainsi que de prévenir et gérer les crises alimentaires. Cependant, les nombreuses crises alimentaires chroniques du Niger (1996-1997, 2001, 2004-2005, 2009-2010) suscitent néanmoins un certain questionnement quant à l’efficacité et l’efficience de cette évaluation. Cette note décrira certaines méthodologies d’évaluation de la vulnérabilité alimentaire les plus usitées au Niger. Au total, trois méthodologies ont été caractérisées, celle de la Cellule de Coordination du Système d’Alerte Précoce (CC/SAP), de certains Partenaires Techniques et Financiers (Save The Children, Action Contre la Faim, …) et du CC/SAP et de l’Institut National de la Statistique du Niger (INS-Niger). Cette description permettra de mieux cerner les spécificités de chacune d’elles et d’élaborer certaines remarques et recommandations. Ce document introduira, tout d’abord, le concept de vulnérabilité repris dans la littérature. Ensuite, il décrira les différentes méthodologies de calcul et d’évaluation de la vulnérabilité utilisées au Niger. Enfin, ces méthodologies seront analysées et critiquées en vue de présenter des propositions d’améliorations. Il en ressort que le niveau d’analyse de la vulnérabilité doit être affiné d’un point de vue départemental et communal. Il est essentiel de réaliser une distinction entre les ménages urbains et ruraux étant donné la diversité des stratégies opérées par ces ménages. L’évaluation de la vulnérabilité des ménages pastoraux et/ou transhumants devrait être repensée pour améliorer la prise en compte de ceux-ci. La recommandation principale de cette note est d’augmenter le nombre de ménages de l’échantillon d’analyse dans le but de mieux caractériser la vulnérabilité des ménages urbains, ruraux, pastoraux et de produire des indices de vulnérabilité par commune. [less ▲]

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See detailConférences: les rencontres du CEA en 2010
Van Ruymbeke, Muriel ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailSUSTAINABLE ENERGY POLICY INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT “SEPIA” - Final Report
LAES, Eric; COUDER, Johan; VERBRUGGEN, Aviel et al

Report (2011)

The report summarizes a 3 years research program aimed at developping long term sustainable scenarios for Belgian the energy system. The research included expert participation, stakeholders assessment ... [more ▼]

The report summarizes a 3 years research program aimed at developping long term sustainable scenarios for Belgian the energy system. The research included expert participation, stakeholders assessment, quantitative modelling and fuzzy-logic analysis of the assessments. It produced three scenarios for a sustainable energy system in Belgium 2050. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Lais bretons moyen-anglais
Dor, Juliette ULg

Report (2011)

Review article of Colette Stévanovitch/ Anne Mathieu's volume of collected French translations (Turnhout : Brepols, 2010, 503 p., TVMA9). With contributions by Claire Vial, Hélène Dauby, Guy Bourquin ... [more ▼]

Review article of Colette Stévanovitch/ Anne Mathieu's volume of collected French translations (Turnhout : Brepols, 2010, 503 p., TVMA9). With contributions by Claire Vial, Hélène Dauby, Guy Bourquin, Philippe Mahoux-Pauzin, Jean-Jacques Blanchot, Marthe Mensah, Martine Yvernault, and the two editors. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation pré-normative de pratiques agricoles et agro-environnementales en vue des plans de gestion des eaux de surface et souterraines en Région wallonne à l’aide du modèle EPICgrid-Qualvados
Sohier, Catherine ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg

Report (2011)

Le présent Rapport synthétise et conclut les travaux réalisés dans le cadre de la Convention Qualvados 2 (Convention SPGE - ULg GxABT) : « Modélisation pré-normative de pratiques agricoles et agro ... [more ▼]

Le présent Rapport synthétise et conclut les travaux réalisés dans le cadre de la Convention Qualvados 2 (Convention SPGE - ULg GxABT) : « Modélisation pré-normative de pratiques agricoles et agro-environnementales en vue des plans de gestion des eaux de surface et souterraines en Région wallonne à l’aide du modèle EPICgrid-Qualvados ». [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental investigations of the material behavior of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy
Rossi, Barbara ULg; Gilles, Gaëtan ULg; Zolotas, Eric et al

Report (2011)

Computer models are widely used to support the development of conventional design methods based on expensive full-scale tests or trial and error methods. Nevertheless, in order to accurately model metal ... [more ▼]

Computer models are widely used to support the development of conventional design methods based on expensive full-scale tests or trial and error methods. Nevertheless, in order to accurately model metal forming processes as well as structural behavior of load carrying elements, it is necessary to afford an accurate knowledge of the material properties. Titanium is one of the material for which various industrial sectors such as aerospace or biomedical are showing an increasing interest. This paper presents the experimental tests performed on the titanium based alloy Ti6Al4V to investigate on its mechanical behavior, especially in terms of its anisotropy and hardening. For that purpose, a classical uniaxial and a non-standard biaxial experimental equipments designed by Florès in the Materials and Structures Mechanics Laboratory of the University of Liège have been used to perform tensile, simple shear and cyclic shear tests as well as successive simple shear and plane strain tests, which provide the main contribution of this paper in the form of stress-strain curves. [less ▲]

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See detailPrise en charge de la douleur chronique en Belgique : passé, présent et futur
Berquin, Anne; FAYMONVILLE, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; Deseure, Kristof et al

Report (2011)

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See detailPhotographies hémisphériques
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Mackels, Benoit ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailObjective Function & Selection of Constraints (WP2 and WP3)
Rigo, Philippe ULg; Amrane, Amirouche ULg; YERNA, Cindy ULg

Report (2011)

The aim of this report is to present, define and explain the objective function used in the optimization process of the trimaran regarding some specific constraints. Therefore, Tasks 2.0(selection of ... [more ▼]

The aim of this report is to present, define and explain the objective function used in the optimization process of the trimaran regarding some specific constraints. Therefore, Tasks 2.0(selection of constraints) and 3.0 (defining objective functions) are resumed herein. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport final
Zirbes, Lara ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailL’adaptation au changement climatique en région wallonne
EcoRes-TEC Conseil; Amelung, Bas; Biernaux, Martin et al

Report (2011)

Climate change is now globally accepted. The 4th IPCC report, published in 2007, clearly indicates that this phenomenon is mostly the result of human activity. All parts of the globe are potentially at ... [more ▼]

Climate change is now globally accepted. The 4th IPCC report, published in 2007, clearly indicates that this phenomenon is mostly the result of human activity. All parts of the globe are potentially at risk. There are no activity sectors that will be left untouched. Adaptation is therefore necessary. Since 2006, the European Commission has been looking at the climate change adaptation issue. It first held a consultation on the European Commission Green Paper “adapting to climate change in Europe - options for EU action”. This led to the publication of the White Paper « Adapting to climate change: towards a European framework for action ». In this document, the EC puts forward the idea of a compulsory Adaptation Strategy at Member State level. Several EU countries have already done so: Finland, United Kingdom and France. Belgium, through the National Climate Commission, adopted its « National Climate Strategy » in late 2010. The objective is to recommend an operational action plan by 2012. This action plan will be the result of a merger between the action plans of the three regions and the federal governments. The Flemish region launched a study to start the development process of their action plan in 2010; the Walloon region has followed with this study and the Brussels region and the Federal should launch their studies during this year (2011). This study enabled to draw a complete review – characteristics, current vulnerabilities, future vulnerabilities - of the Walloon region on seven topics: Agriculture, water, infrastructure/ spatial planning, health, energy, biodiversity and forests. An enlarged experts’ consultation identified key measures to implement in order for Wallonia to adapt to climate change. Chapter 1, « climate change adaptation in European regions », is a stock-taking exercise of adaptation strategies found in Europe in order to draw relevant lessons for this study. Chapter 2: « the climate futures of Wallonia”, is an analysis of the climate projection specifically carried out for this study. Those projections were used to identify Wallonia’s vulnerabilities. Chapter 3 « Wallonia’s vulnerabilities to Climate change” explores the seven themes Agriculture, water, infrastructure/ spatial planning, health, energy, biodiversity and forests to describe the current and future risks and to put forward a time-dependent and sectoral hierarchy of impacts. Chapter 4 « Wallonia’s adaptation to climate change » states the core principles used to define the adaptation choices as well as the proposed guidelines for each theme. Chapter 5 « towards an action plan » presents the adaptation measures by theme along with the first elements of an evaluation procedure. Finally, the appendices contain the operational documents: the full thematic sheets, the action plan, the strategic guideline paper and the transversal analysis and the supporting documents: maps, climate projections database and the benchmarks. [less ▲]

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See detailL’adaptation au changement climatique en région wallonne : Fiche thématique : Biodiversité
Frisson, Gwenn ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

Report (2011)

• Les changements attendus sont importants mais difficiles à quantifier. Seules des tendances peuvent être dégagées. • La fragmentation des habitats naturels est particulièrement poussée en Wallonie. Elle ... [more ▼]

• Les changements attendus sont importants mais difficiles à quantifier. Seules des tendances peuvent être dégagées. • La fragmentation des habitats naturels est particulièrement poussée en Wallonie. Elle constitue une lourde menace sur la biodiversité et une entrave aux changements d’aires de distribution attendus. • Développer le réseau écologique et diminuer les menaces qui pèsent actuellement sur la biodiversité est primordial pour donner une chance à la biodiversité de s’adapter au changement climatique. • Les impacts de la perte de biodiversité ne doivent pas seulement se mesurer en termes de valeur intrinsèque mais également en termes de services écosystémiques. [less ▲]

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See detailL’adaptation au changement climatique en région wallonne : Fiche thématique : Forêt
Frisson, Gwenn ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

Report (2011)

• Les changements attendus sont importants mais difficiles à quantifier. Seules des tendances peuvent être dégagées. • Pour le domaine de la forêt, il est d’autant plus nécessaire d’anticiper les effets ... [more ▼]

• Les changements attendus sont importants mais difficiles à quantifier. Seules des tendances peuvent être dégagées. • Pour le domaine de la forêt, il est d’autant plus nécessaire d’anticiper les effets du changement climatique dès maintenant, étant donné la longévité importante des arbres forestiers. • Favoriser l’adaptation naturelle et augmenter la résilience au changement de la forêt peut se faire au moyen d’une sylviculture plus durable et plus proche du fonctionnement naturel de l’écosystème forestier. Diminuer les menaces d’ordre non climatique participe également à cela. • La forêt ne doit pas seulement se mesurer en termes de valeur intrinsèque mais également en termes de services écosystémiques. [less ▲]

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See detailNature+ asbl - Rapport d'activités 2010
Federspiel, Michèle; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailDes outils pour soutenir les apprenants en bachelier - Aide à la résolution de problèmes en physique. Aide à la maîtrise de la langue française.
Jacquet, Maud; Gourdange, Brigitte; Maes, Estelle et al

Report (2011)

Le rapport rend compte des actions mises en oeuvre pour soutenir les bacheliers dans leur apprentissage de la physique (en médecine) et du français (en logopédie). Ces actions sont supportées par des ... [more ▼]

Le rapport rend compte des actions mises en oeuvre pour soutenir les bacheliers dans leur apprentissage de la physique (en médecine) et du français (en logopédie). Ces actions sont supportées par des dispositifs d'apprentissage en ligne. [less ▲]

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See detailFood interactions : effects on health, consumer perception and impact on agro-food industries “FOODINTER”.
Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg; Blust, Ronny; Boniver, Delphine et al

Report (2011)

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See detailBelRAI VI : Executive summary
Declercq, A; Berden, J; Flamaing, J et al

Report (2011)

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See detailMonteverdi letterato
Moreno, Paola ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailBelRAI VI : Executive Summary
Declercq, A; Berden, J; Flamaing, J et al

Report (2011)

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See detailAnalyse transversale: Evaluation des cursus de marketing et commerce extérieur en fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles
Tondeur, Jean ULg; Zehnder, Robert A.; Adriaensens, Bernhard et al

Report (2011)

Ce rapport d'expertise présente l'analyse transversale de l'évaluation des cursus de marketing et de commerce extérieur dans les instituts qui organisent ces programmes en Communauté française. Il fait ... [more ▼]

Ce rapport d'expertise présente l'analyse transversale de l'évaluation des cursus de marketing et de commerce extérieur dans les instituts qui organisent ces programmes en Communauté française. Il fait partie des évaluations commanditées par l'AEQES. [less ▲]

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See detailDeterminants of high, median and low rates of caesarean deliveries in Belgium
Absil, Gaëtan ULg; Van Parys, A. S.; Bednarek, Stéphanie et al

Report (2011)

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See detailScientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Chapter 2 - Stratospheric Ozone and Surface Ultraviolet Radiation
Douglass, A.; Fioletov, V.; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie et al

Report (2011)

As a result of the Montreal Protocol, ozone is expected to recover from the effect of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) as their abundances decline in the coming decades. The 2006 Assessment showed that ... [more ▼]

As a result of the Montreal Protocol, ozone is expected to recover from the effect of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) as their abundances decline in the coming decades. The 2006 Assessment showed that globally averaged column ozone ceased to decline around 1996, meeting the criterion for the first stage of recovery. Ozone is expected to increase as a result of continued decrease in ODSs (second stage of recovery). This chapter discusses recent observations of ozone and ultraviolet radiation in the context of their historical records. Natural variability, observational uncertainty, and stratospheric cooling necessitate a long record in order to attribute an ozone increase to decreases in ODSs. The primary tools used in this Assessment for prediction of ozone are chemistry-climate models (CCMs). These CCMs are designed to represent the processes determining the amount of stratospheric ozone and its response to changes in ODSs and greenhouse gases. Eighteen CCMs have been recently evaluated using a variety of process-based compari-sons to measurements. The CCMs are further evaluated here by comparison of trends calculated from measurements with trends calculated from simulations designed to reproduce ozone behavior during an observing period. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport 4 (comité de thèse)
Zirbes, Lara ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailClimatic and Anthropogenic Impacts on African Ecosystems "CLANIMAE" - Final Report
Verschuren, Dirk; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Cocquyt, Christine et al

Report (2011)

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See detailIMISCOE Research Network, Training and Research Inventory
Gsir, Sonia ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailCYANOBACTERIAL BLOOMS : TOXICITY, DIVERSITY, MODELLING AND MANAGEMENT
Descy, Jean-Pierre; Pirlot, S; Verniers, G et al

Report (2011)

The B-BLOOMS2 project aimed to deepen knowledge of cyanobacterial blooms in Belgium, improve the modelling for prediction and early-warning, develop operational monitoring structures and tools, and ... [more ▼]

The B-BLOOMS2 project aimed to deepen knowledge of cyanobacterial blooms in Belgium, improve the modelling for prediction and early-warning, develop operational monitoring structures and tools, and propose strategies to reduce the impact of cyanobacterial blooms. From a scientific point of view, the research programme focused on: - Collection of physical, chemical, biological and meteorological data on selected reference waterbodies plagued by toxic cyanobacterial blooms in Flanders, Brussels and Wallonia; - Identification and study of the toxigenic cyanobacteria present in the Belgian samples using molecular tools on samples and strains, including genetic diversity and factors regulating their population dynamics; - Measurement of the major cyanotoxins present in the blooms and water samples by analytical methods; - Development and test of management scenarios for control or mitigation of cyanobacterial blooms in one reservoir using integrated watershed models; - Development of a statistical predictive model for a series of urban ponds. From a practical and science policy point of view, B-BLOOMS2 aimed to: - Implement a network of samplers based on existing monitoring programmes of surface waters or on collaboration with health authorities or environmental organisations (BLOOMNET); - Transfer knowledge about methods of monitoring and analysis of blooms to the water/health authorities and environmental organisations by hands-on courses in our laboratories and field sites; - Reinforce the communication to and with authorities and the general population, to raise public awareness, contribute to future guidelines and risk assessment procedures, and improve monitoring and management. [less ▲]

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See detailCyanidation of Jabali Ag-Zn ore (Yemen)
Bastin, David ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailRecherche sur la gestion des âges dans les entreprises belges
Hansez, Isabelle ULg; Faulx, Daniel ULg; Angenot, Arnaud ULg et al

Report (2011)

Face à la problématique du vieillissement au travail, ainsi qu’aux conséquences sociales et économiques auxquelles elle est associée, la nécessité de mettre en place une gestion des âges au sein des ... [more ▼]

Face à la problématique du vieillissement au travail, ainsi qu’aux conséquences sociales et économiques auxquelles elle est associée, la nécessité de mettre en place une gestion des âges au sein des entreprises est de plus en plus souvent mise en exergue. Cette gestion des âges, qui se veut intégrée, implique cependant une remise en question profonde des valeurs, des normes et de la culture d’entreprise. Associer le facteur « âge » aux politiques et pratiques de ressources humaines doit nécessairement s’accompagner d’un changement des mentalités et d’une meilleure intégration des générations au travail. C’est dans cette optique qu’une recherche sur la gestion des âges dans les entreprises belges a été commanditée, en 2010, par le Service Public Fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale. Cette recherche a contribué au développement d’un guide de sensibilisation dont l’objectif était de constituer une aide à l’implémentation d’une gestion des âges efficace en entreprise. [less ▲]

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