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See detailLe concept d'éco-zoning en région wallonne de Belgique
Bory, Alexandra ULg; Brévers, Florence ULg; Dopagne, Claude ULg et al

Report (2011)

La nécessité d’évoluer vers des zones d’activité économique plus durables sous-tend cette recherche exploratoire autour du concept d’éco-zoning. Des investigations menées dans la littérature spécialisée ... [more ▼]

La nécessité d’évoluer vers des zones d’activité économique plus durables sous-tend cette recherche exploratoire autour du concept d’éco-zoning. Des investigations menées dans la littérature spécialisée, un recueil d’expériences et des entretiens avec des parties prenantes permettent de proposer une définition de référence qui s’articule sur le principe de la mise en oeuvre coordonnée de trois approches : l’aménagement et l’urbanisme, le management environnemental et l’écologie industrielle. Une proposition de grille d’évaluation des réalisations est formulée autour de critères d’encadrement et de performances. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de faisabilité de la mise en place d’une base de données de morbidité en médecine générale en Wallonie et à Bruxelles. Rapport final du groupe Fédération Wallonie Bruxelles. REGM-Fr
Jamoulle, Marc; Pestiaux, Dominique; Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg et al

Report (2011)

La question posée par le Service Public Fédéral. Santé Publique, Direction des Soins Primaires est de savoir s’il est possible de possible de constituer avec les médecins généralistes un système ... [more ▼]

La question posée par le Service Public Fédéral. Santé Publique, Direction des Soins Primaires est de savoir s’il est possible de possible de constituer avec les médecins généralistes un système d’enregistrement de données en provenance de l’exercice professionnel en soins primaires qui puissent aider l’administration de la santé publique dans ses processus informatifs et décisionnels. L’équipe de chercheurs s’est lancée dans l’étude de l’existant, tant en Belgique qu’à l’étranger aussi bien du point de vue technologique qu’éthique. Sur base de ces études, on a pu entrevoir la possibilité d’obtenir des données des dossiers médicaux informatisés en extrayant les résumés de dossier médicaux mis en place par le processus de labellisation et dénommés SUMEHRs. L’étude de l’existant et des réalisations à l’étranger et en particulier de l’équipe de chercheurs Suisses a donné l’idée de mettre en place un serveur interactif d’analyse de données médicales. Le serveur ADONIS (Analyse de Données médIcaleS par Internet) a d’abord été étudié pour extraire et lire 1 SUMEHR de 1 médecin (ADONIS 1), puis pour extraire, lire, agréger et analyser n SUMEHRs de 1 médecin ou groupe de médecins travaillant en association (ADONIS 2). Ce serveur, développé avec des outils Open Source et sur base de l’expertise de CRISNET asbl, a été prévu pour avoir une troisième phase soit ADONIS 3, qui ne pourra être opérationnel que si des conditions éthiques précises sont appliquées. Alors qu’ADONIS 2 est conçu comme une extension privée du bureau du médecin, ADONIS 3 qui fonctionne sur la même base de données (SAFENET®) qu’ADONIS 2 autorisera une agrégation de donnée post transfert. Un logiciel de déidentification, cryptage et réidentification (DECRYRE®) des données a été mis en place dans cette optique. Les différents rapports ont été publiés au fur et à mesure sur le même site et ont pu aussi être téléchargés. http://trix.docpatient.net rubrique REGM Recommandations 1. Repenser la politique de labellisation. La politique de labellisation doit être résolument orientée vers des objectifs de santé personnelle individuelle et des objectifs de santé collective. La structure du DMI doit être réétudiée pour sa partie clinique et implémentées avec des objectifs cliniques et épidémiologique précis 2. Mettre en place les conditions éthiques du traitement des informations personnelles de santé. Il existe une demande et des conditions positives pour la réalisation d’études épidémiologiques de d’assurance de qualité avec le matériel clinique déjà disponible. La mise en place des conditions éthiques incombe aux médecins eux-mêmes qui seraient utilement aidés dans cette tâche par l’administration publique et les organisations représentatives de la médecine générale. 3. Poursuivre la mise au point d’ADONIS. Le serveur ADONIS est un Proof of Concept mas en tant que tel il peut déjà servir à analyser des données. Plusieurs groupes ont déjà annoncé leur intérêt et le fait que le serveur est conçu pour extraire, lire, agréger et analyser toute information transmise en langage KMEHR ouvre des horizons de recherche intéressants. 4. Favoriser l’analyse de data par des groupes locaux. Même si on dispose des outils adéquats, l’analyse de données est une tâche difficile qui demande formations et temps disponibles. Les médecins généralistes belges et en particulier ceux de la Fédération Wallonie Bruxelles sont déjà peu nombreux et peu de jeunes investissent le métier pour le moment. Sans incitants puissants à la recherche, financiers et opérationnels, il y a peu de chance qu’on puisse effectivement disposer de données de morbidité utiles. 5. Développer une politique terminologique pour les soins primaires. L’étude des SUMEHRs montre que la question terminologique est loin d’être résolue. La cacophonie est la règle. Les outils disponibles sont insuffisants, les interfaces non opératoires. Il y a lieu d’inciter la recherche et l’application dans ce domaine. 6. Préparer la révolution du Web sémantique. On ne peut aborder actuellement la question des données, ici en santé, sans prendre en compte le développement ultra rapide et exponentiel de cette nouvelle façon de concevoir la distribution des données sur Internet qui révolutionnera probablement tout le domaine de la gestion des données de santé dans les années à venir. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic analysis of Stainless Steel- Reinforced Concrete members designed for a Fire Resistance of 2 hours
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Report (2011)

While Stainless steel is used primarily for its corrosion resistance, there is a growing interest in other properties, such as mechanical, high temperature resistance, aesthetics and others. The ... [more ▼]

While Stainless steel is used primarily for its corrosion resistance, there is a growing interest in other properties, such as mechanical, high temperature resistance, aesthetics and others. The properties at high temperatures (400 – 650°C ) of stainless steels are known and put to use in a number of applications such as steam turbines and equipment for the chemical industry. Some research on the fire resistance of stainless steels has been carried out for welded I beams and for concrete-filled tubes, with positive results. However, there are no published results on the behavior of concrete reinforced with stainless steel rebar. In a preliminary research program conducted by the University of Liege for ISSF, a preliminary assessment of the performance of stainless steel reinforced concrete has been carried out, using computer simulation methods. This preliminary study has shown that stainless steel reinforced concrete members can behave better than carbon steel reinforced concrete members in fire situation. However, an economic analysis is still needed to determine whether stainless steel reinforcement can be interesting for practical applications. This report is divided in two parts. The first part presents the assumptions and the results of the numerical simulations performed by University of Liege. The numerical simulations aim to design stainless and carbon steel -reinforced concrete members satisfying to a fire resistance of 2 hours (Standard fire conditions). The two structural members considered in this study are a reinforced concrete beam and a composite slab (with the so-called « membrane » behavior). The numerical simulations are performed with the SAFIR 20011.a.3 software developed in University of Liege. The second part presents the assumptions and the results of the economic analysis of the structural members designed in the first part. The stainless and carbon steel –reinforced solutions for a fire resistance of 2 hours are compared on an economic basis. [less ▲]

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See detail« The impact of the rulings of the European Court of Justice in the area of direct taxation » 2010 update 2011
Malherbe, Jacques; Malherbe, Philippe; Richelle, Isabelle ULg et al

Report (2011)

This study describes the impact of the rulings of the European Court of Justice (respectively now the Court of Justice of the European Union) on Members States’ direct tax systems. It is the updated ... [more ▼]

This study describes the impact of the rulings of the European Court of Justice (respectively now the Court of Justice of the European Union) on Members States’ direct tax systems. It is the updated version (as of 31 December 2010) of the study PE 404.888 published in 2008. The case-law of the Court is characterised by its continuing development in a changing institutional, political, social and economic context. The area of taxation, and in particular the area of international taxation, is also an evolvingfield,in which conflicting or converging interests between states, or between states and taxpayers, play an important role in the shaping of the applicable national rules, which face new realities due to economic globalisation. Focusing on an analysis of the Court’s judgments, particular attention is also paid to major trends in the implementation of the Court’s case-law by Member States. Finally, the limits of the so-called 'negative integration' through the case-law of the Court are discussed and suggestions are made for possible further European action, notably the adoption of legislative acts in direct tax matters. [less ▲]

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See detailFramdriftsrapport for Scandlynx Norge 2011
Bouyer, Yaëlle ULg

Report (2011)

The 2011 annual reaport of the Scandlynx group actions. This reaport presents all the work done during the year 2011 by the different members.

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See detailPréparatifs d’un essai de traçage par dilution chimique sur la rivière Kou (Burkina Faso)
Sauret, Elie ULg

Report (2011)

Cette note est un document préparatoire d'un essai de traçage par dilution chimique sur une rivière. Il expose sommairement la méthode d'injection à débit constant , le type de traceur utilisé, la ... [more ▼]

Cette note est un document préparatoire d'un essai de traçage par dilution chimique sur une rivière. Il expose sommairement la méthode d'injection à débit constant , le type de traceur utilisé, la technique d'injection envisagée, la méthodologie d'échantillonnage du traceur.... [less ▲]

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See detailModèles statistiques Bayésiens et méthodologies pour calculer le Design Space (OPTIMAL-DS)
Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Hubert, Philippe ULg

Report (2011)

La compréhension des procédés technologiques et industriels dans les secteurs (bio)pharmaceutiques, biotechnologiques, agroalimentaires et environnementaux doit permettre de se conformer aux lignes de ... [more ▼]

La compréhension des procédés technologiques et industriels dans les secteurs (bio)pharmaceutiques, biotechnologiques, agroalimentaires et environnementaux doit permettre de se conformer aux lignes de conduites initiées par la FDA ou d'autres organismes de contrôles. Notamment, le document ICH Q8 introduit les notions de "Process Analytical Technology", de "Quality by Design" et de "Design Space", ayant attraits à la qualité des procédés industriels, des procédés d'analyse ainsi qu'à la qualité des produits finis. Cependant, si les lignes de conduites pour ces exigences sont expliquées, aucune méthodologie pour les atteindre n'est donnée. Or, un nombre considérable de nouvelles entités chimiques sont synthétisées par les laboratoires pharmaceutiques, biotechnologiques ou agroalimentaires. Les producteurs de matières premières et/ou d’excipients (secteur chimique) ont également besoin de disposer rapidement de méthodes analytiques de contrôle qui leur permettront de s’assurer de la qualité de leurs produits. On comprend aisément la nécessité pour ces secteurs de disposer rapidement de résultats fiables puisque les activités de recherches mais aussi des investissements, souvent importants, sont orientés ou stoppés sur base de données chiffrées, produits par les méthodes analytiques. La production de résultats fiables et la démonstration de cette fiabilité sont donc économiquement fondamentales. Ce projet vise la mise au point de stratégies et de modèles génériques de développement automatisé de nouvelles méthodes analytiques séparatives, en se basant sur la modélisation des temps de rétention, la planification expérimentale, et le concept de Design Space. L’objectif connexe est d’appliquer cette méthodologie à l’optimisation de n’importe quel procédé. Le fait de pouvoir disposer d’une méthodologie de mise au point automatique de méthodes analytiques ou de tous procédés analytiques aura un impact significatif. Cette nouvelle technologie permettra de réduire de façon drastique le temps d’optimisation des méthodes et procédés, permettant une production plus efficiente de produits (pharmaceutique, cosmétique, agro-alimentaire ou biotechnologique) répondant aux spécifications du client. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between new and old excipients
Hubert, Cédric ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg; Hubert, Philippe ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailConvention de recherche d'intérêt générale Gestion Intégrée Sol Erosion Ruissellement - Rapport final
Colard, François ULg; Cordonnier, Hélène; Feltz, Nicolas et al

Report (2011)

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See detailFire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles
Vassart, Olivier; Hawes, Mike; Simms, Ian et al

Report (2011)

The aim of this document is to describe the calculation methods developed to assess the resistance of simply supported cellular beams in fire conditions. This development has been made in the scope of the ... [more ▼]

The aim of this document is to describe the calculation methods developed to assess the resistance of simply supported cellular beams in fire conditions. This development has been made in the scope of the RFCS FiCEB+ [23] and in the scope of the PHD of O.Vassart [24]. This calculation procedure has been introduced in the ACB+ software available on www.arcelormittal.com/sections [23] RFS2-CT-2007-00042 : FICEB+ - Fire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles ; March 2011 [24] O. Vassart, Analytical model for cellular beams made of hot rolled sections in case of fire, PhD Thesis, Université Blaise Pascal Clermont-Ferrand II, 2009 [less ▲]

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See detailCPLU - rapport d'activité 2011
Willems, Sylvie ULg

Report (2011)

Rapport d'activité de la Clinique Psychologique et Logopédique de l'Université de Liège - 2012

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See detailDossier de candidature INNOVACT Campus Award
Goffin, Dorothée ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailRMI-Dourbes ionosonde database - Status 2010
Stankov, Stanimir; Stegen, Koen; Jodogne, Jean-Claude et al

Report (2011)

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See detailRepérage des données et des études - Synthèse bibliographique sur le logement (Wallonie-Lorraine-Luxembourg). Habitreg.net : un réseau pour répondre aux défis d'habiter sur des territoires ruraux et périurbains de Wallonie-Lorraine-Luxembourg
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg; Strée, Julie ULg

Report (2011)

Le rapport est structuré en trois chapitres. Le premier porte sur les politiques d'aménagement et de logement au sein de la Wallonie, de la Lorraine et du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Le deuxième chapitre ... [more ▼]

Le rapport est structuré en trois chapitres. Le premier porte sur les politiques d'aménagement et de logement au sein de la Wallonie, de la Lorraine et du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Le deuxième chapitre est ensuite consacré aux caractéristiques des parcs de logemet lorrains et wallons. Le troisième chapitre est quant à lui consacré au sujet des évolutions socio-économiques et sociodémographiques. [less ▲]

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See detailAAA prevent. Alcohol and substance use among adults and juveniles in the French speeking part of Belgium
Gavray, Claire ULg; Pissart, renaud

Report (2011)

quelles sont les politiques menées en Belgique francophone en matière de consommation de drogue et d'alcool chez les jeunes ?

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See detailCPLU - rapport d'activité 2010
Willems, Sylvie ULg

Report (2011)

Rapport d'activité de la Clinique Psychologique et Logopédique de l'Université de Liège - Année 2010

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See detailCampagne de mesure des odeurs sur le centre de compostage de Farciennes. Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Waczek, Cédric; Thomas, Jean-François et al

Report (2011)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, which was extended to all biowaste treatment facility. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, which was extended to all biowaste treatment facility. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a first campaign on the composting site of Farciennes. The report firstly introduces the composting process itself so as the potential odour sources on a compost site. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group has applied a dynamic olfactometry on the basis of samples collected through an flux chamber placed on the compost windrows. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal Operational Geomagnetic Index K Calculation (K-LOGIC) from digital ground-based magnetic measurements
Stankov, Stanimir; Stegen, Koen; Warnant, René ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailEvaluation of the ecotoxicological effects of POPs and heavy metals, reflecting pathological, microbiological and genetic analyses, on the Mekong River population of Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris)
Siebert, Ursula; Das, Krishna ULg

Report (2011)

For this report, samples of Irrawaddy River dolphins found dead along the Mekong River between 2006 and 2010 were analysed in different laboratories in Europe, Canada and Cambodia. The aim of the ... [more ▼]

For this report, samples of Irrawaddy River dolphins found dead along the Mekong River between 2006 and 2010 were analysed in different laboratories in Europe, Canada and Cambodia. The aim of the investigation was to gain additional knowledge on histological and toxicological findings as well as on the genetic variation of the Mekong population. The report summarizes those results in relation to previous investigations conducted in Cambodia and the United States of America. [less ▲]

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See detailContract 21539/08/NL/SFe - Advancement of mechanical verification methods for non-linear spacecraft: Exploitation of test data
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

Report (2011)

The objective of this technical note is to apply the nonlinear system identification techniques described in the technical note "Nonlinearity identification methods: predictive analyses" to the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this technical note is to apply the nonlinear system identification techniques described in the technical note "Nonlinearity identification methods: predictive analyses" to the experimental data gathered on the SmallSat spacecraft structure. Guidelines for nonlinear spacecraft testing and identification are also be provided. [less ▲]

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See detailSocio-economic survey on invasive plants and ornamental horticulture in Belgium
Halford, Mathieu ULg; Heemers, Leen; Mathys, Catherine et al

Report (2011)

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See detailAdaptive confidence-oriented self-assessment in an IMS LD Unit of Learning
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

Report (2011)

The document presents an adaptive unit of learning, called "The Dangerous Knowledge Tour", which cumulates two novelties. On the one hand, the adaptive processes were modelled with the IMS-LD authoring ... [more ▼]

The document presents an adaptive unit of learning, called "The Dangerous Knowledge Tour", which cumulates two novelties. On the one hand, the adaptive processes were modelled with the IMS-LD authoring tool Recourse at level B. On the other hand, it provides the first example of an adaptive sequencing based on a combination of cognitive and metacognitive formative tests. From a technical viewpoint (IMS-LD for adaptation) and from an instructional viewpoint (combination of learning and metalearning factors in assessment), the Dangerous Knowledge Tour (Verpoorten & Glahn, 2010) provides an up-and-running instantiation of a next generation assessment. However, the instructional design efforts highlighted shortages and drawbacks regarding IMS LD and QTI spécifications. [less ▲]

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See detailImplications of the adoption of a concept-based approach to instructional design
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

Report (2011)

This document reports on an attempt to import a traditional distance course in a tool conceived to support a concept mapping procedure intended to facilitate, in a second phase, the implementation of ... [more ▼]

This document reports on an attempt to import a traditional distance course in a tool conceived to support a concept mapping procedure intended to facilitate, in a second phase, the implementation of adaptive rules and personal learning paths. This article does not ascertain the value of this approach per se (for those interested, see some reflection on this topic in Appendix 1). It just aims at sketching the time needed for such a work and to document encountered difficulties. The article resolutely takes the viewpoint of an average instructor. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of Muong Chuoi, Kinh-Lo and Thu-Bo Barriers (report Jan 2011)
Rigo, Philippe ULg

Report (2011)

Consulting activities for the water level control for flood protection of HCMC area Design of Muong Chuoi, Kinh-Lo and Thu-Bo Barriers ICMB-9, HCMC, Vietnam

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See detailOptimization study of the Scheldt ock gate on the cross section C with LBR-5 software
Rigo, Philippe ULg; Yerna, Olivier ULg

Report (2011)

Report of the optimisation (least weight) performed on the lock gates (Port of Antwerp)

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See detailFINAL REPORT PHASE II "Impact of Phenology and Environmental Conditions on BVOC Emissions from Forest Ecosystems" "IMPECVOC"
Dewulf, Jo; Joó, Eva; Van Langenhove, Herman et al

Report (2011)

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See detailAppui à l'Assemblée provinciale de Bandundu
Kabamba, Bob ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailIntroduction aux applications des ondelettes
Charles, Catherine ULg

Report (2011)

Cette note fait suite à une note antérieure. Son objectif est de faire prendre conscience au lecteur de la large étendue d'applications des ondelettes. Elle se découpe en deux parties. La première ... [more ▼]

Cette note fait suite à une note antérieure. Son objectif est de faire prendre conscience au lecteur de la large étendue d'applications des ondelettes. Elle se découpe en deux parties. La première illustre la théorie des ondelettes aux moyens d'applications tournées vers la statistique. La deuxième se tourne vers les applications en traitement du signal et de l'image. [less ▲]

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See detailThe State of Environmental Migration 2010
Gemenne, François ULg; Brücker, Pauline; Glasser, Joshua

Report (2011)

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See detailModélisation numérique de l'expérience SDZ pour l'Andra
Pardoen, Benoît ULg; Charlier, Robert ULg; Radu, Jean-Pol ULg

Report (2011)

An in situ ventilation test (SDZ) is performed by the French national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory. The aim is to characterise the ... [more ▼]

An in situ ventilation test (SDZ) is performed by the French national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory. The aim is to characterise the effect of the desaturation and possible resaturation of the damaged zone located around an experimental gallery due to controlled ventilation imposed in this gallery. Hydro and hydro-mechanical numerical modellings are realised in order to acquire a better understanding of clayey rock behaviour and transfers occurring during the test. [less ▲]

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See detailNZEB Definitions: current market status and certification in Belgium
Mlecnik; Attia, Shady ULg

Report (2011)

The recast of the European Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requires the uptake of a definition of so called ‘nearly zero energy’ buildings (nZEB). Belgium was first to set a definition for a ... [more ▼]

The recast of the European Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requires the uptake of a definition of so called ‘nearly zero energy’ buildings (nZEB). Belgium was first to set a definition for a ‘net zero energy house’ (NZEB) in 2009. Every year the definition is revised for consistency with shortcomings and emerging issues. The Belgian definition raised many questions regarding (1) the net balance, (2) the application and calculation method (3) the indoor air quality and comfort, (4) energy use included in the balance, (5) the type of buildings, (6) the accepted renewable energy supply options, (7) the quality assurance and monitoring and (8) energy storage and the connection to the energy infrastructure. Therefore, the paper presents a review on the current Belgian definition and its market status in comparison with the international context. The aim of the paper is to review current definition discussions and pave the way to a more consistent definition. [less ▲]

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See detailRésultats des analyses en ergonomie cognitive et architecturologie des expérimentations en coprésence et à distance outillée
Ben Rajeb, Samia ULg; Lecourtois, Caroline; Guéna, François

Report (2011)

Cette dernière partie de notre recherche rend compte des analyses architecturologiques menées sur les données recueillies à l’occasion d’expérimentations réalisées en laboratoire selon le protocole ... [more ▼]

Cette dernière partie de notre recherche rend compte des analyses architecturologiques menées sur les données recueillies à l’occasion d’expérimentations réalisées en laboratoire selon le protocole présenté par nos partenaires du Limsi-CNRS dans le livrable précédent (T24). Notre étude architecturologique ne s’intéressant qu’à la collaboration distante outillée, nous nous sommes alors focalisés exclusivement sur les enregistrements concernant les expérimentations distantes via le SDC.Cette partie est constituée de trois chapitres visant à caractériser les mécanismes cognitifs spécifiques à des situations de conception architecturale collaborative à distance : • Le premier chapitre expose les méthodologies architecturologiques, en termes de classes d’opérations et d’opérations de conception ; • Le second chapitre comporte deux sous-chapitres : - le premier chapitre présente un exemple détaillé d’une analyse architecturologique appliquée à une de ces expérimentations; - le deuxième expose les principaux résultats issus des analyses architecturologiques de l’ensemble des expérimentations ; • Le troisième chapitre synthétise l’ensemble de ces résultats sous la forme d’un modèle théorique permettant de comprendre les spécificités d’une situation de conception architecturale collaborative à distance outillée par le SDC. [less ▲]

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See detailRegM - Registre de Morbidité
Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg; Franckh, Marc; Froidcoeur, Xavier ULg

Report (2011)

REGM is a research program about the feasibility of a Belgian morbidity registration system, extracted from existing electronic information systems (EMR) of general practitioners. REGM is part of a larger ... [more ▼]

REGM is a research program about the feasibility of a Belgian morbidity registration system, extracted from existing electronic information systems (EMR) of general practitioners. REGM is part of a larger program which aims to enhance the development of primary health care and improve the quality of care. This part is aimed at the description of three experiments: in France, Switzerland and the Netherlands. [less ▲]

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See detailDioxin2011 Highlights
Focant, Jean-François ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailRapport annuel du Projet SEE - Design Participatif
Parotte, Céline ULg; Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Fallon, Catherine ULg

Report (2011)

Le projet SEE (Système d’Échanges Électroniques) a pour objectif général le développement d'un Système d'Échanges Électroniques sur base d'une collaboration entre différents partenaires universitaires et ... [more ▼]

Le projet SEE (Système d’Échanges Électroniques) a pour objectif général le développement d'un Système d'Échanges Électroniques sur base d'une collaboration entre différents partenaires universitaires et une entreprise privée. Dans ce cadre, le Spiral a pour vocation la mise en œuvre de méthodologies de recherche permettant de co-construire un système de vote électronique (dans le cadre des élections sociales) avec les futurs utilisateurs de celui-ci. [less ▲]

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See detailHandling complex risks issues in the domain of environment and health - SCOPE
Torfs, Rudi; Zwetkoff, Catherine ULg; Fallon, Catherine ULg et al

Report (2011)

This research report has its origin in the notion that classical risk assessment paradigms no longer suffice to deal with complex, uncertain and ambiguous risks. Risk assessment was developed as a ... [more ▼]

This research report has its origin in the notion that classical risk assessment paradigms no longer suffice to deal with complex, uncertain and ambiguous risks. Risk assessment was developed as a scientific tool to tackle uncertain consequences of human activities by organizing, evaluating, integrating and presenting scientific information to inform decision-making. Over the years, this type of risk assessment has proved effective in protecting public health and the environment from major environmental hazards with high relative risks. In the modern „risk society‟ classical risk assessment fails to handle complex risks characterized by radical uncertainty and a plurality of legitimate perspectives and values. Public authorities have to deal with issues/risks were facts are uncertain and values are contested. To answer to the increased demands of policymakers and the public for guidance on risk management new processes for the governance of these risks need to be developed. Weberian bureaucratic structures and forms of cooperation are working in a logic of specialisation of work, where distribution of information and knowledge, structures of decisions and allocation of responsibilities are organised ab initio in a stable organisational frame. Such a structure is not capable of resisting to the emergence of new risks which are often not identified as such at start and require a more integrative form of assessment, integrating inter-disciplinary collaboration on a specific policy problem that is complex, uncertain, perhaps unlimited in temporal and spatial scale, and interlinked with other phenomena. If the frame of reflexivity (Beck, 2003) is adopted, we thus have to recognise that a global mastering of these risks is not possible. What is now requested is the settlement of conditions for another type of open debate. Experiments in new forms of public participation in the management of technological developments (like e.g. citizen panels on long-term storage of nuclear waste1, or on cars and health2) already inspired the public administrators in their search for new procedural forms of decision making in areas of uncertainty. For a certain category of risks inclusion of the public, next to industrial stakeholders, organised environmental interest groups and governmental agencies and administrations is warranted, to integrate different opinions and values and to develop adequate policies. Network governance should be developed, where stakeholders are invited to speak up and where power structures are reconsidered and flattened. Here the authorities are recommended to exercise their capacities not as a centre of knowledge and top-down decision, but as a facilitator for communication and collaboration within networking structures, mobilising numerous experts and stakeholders, including the population itself (Gilbert, 2002), to develop new options which are socially acceptable and technically efficient (Fallon et al., 2008a & b). This requires a different mindset where the plurality of frames and fluidity of boundaries; the need for contextualisation; the construction of unstable temporary networks, the plurality of rationalities and the inherent uncertainties, social and technical (Callon, 1986) of the issues considered. As uncertainties are recognised, scientists are not anymore expected to close the controversy but rather to contribute to the technical quality of the process. The public decision-making process (DMP) should be designed to organise the conditions for an optimal tradeoff between scientific soundness and social acceptability of decisions, in a context where the precautionary principle is relevant. The key issue, framing or “structuring the research questions”, is a method for deciding how to manage scientific uncertainty. From literature review and past studies, we posit that a better quality DMP could be achieved by using tools for an integrated and comparative risk assessment and management. These approaches rely on interdisciplinary risk assessment – relevant soft and hard sciences are engaged together into the knowledge production process rather than mobilized side by side. Concretely, it involves designing the steps or sequences of the process and selecting/developing/adapting risk assessment and management tools. More specific, within the environment and health arena there is limited experience with these new concepts of integrated assessments (Briggs, 2008). Therefore case studies on various environment and health issues were performed to evaluate current integrated risk assessment practices, multi-level precautionary approaches and communication of complex risks. Different tools as Delphi, scenario workshop, etc. were used to analyse the issues at stake. The development of an integrated approach in risk assessment requires cooperation across policy domains and hierarchical structures. In the field of air pollution a science-policy workshop confirmed that in the domain of air quality policy, public servants communicate well with researchers from scientific institutions. The protagonists in Flemish air quality policy have a common scientific background and are technical experts. This observation puts into question a common discourse postulating that there is a „communication problem' or 'gap' between 'researchers' and 'policymakers'. This discourse as a description of a state of affairs does not suit empirical reality, and needs to be reformulated in more precise terms. If there is a communication gap, it is not to be situated between public administration („policymakers‟) and researchers („scientists‟), who share the same overall concerns, but between public administrations and ministerial cabinets. The analysis of risks related to electromagnetic fields (EMF), showed how the precautionary principle is reinterpreted differently at each different political level (European, Belgian, Wallonia, Regional) in order to better integrate the local institutional and political environment. In most cases, when this principle is put at the foreground, its use is mainly symbolic and incantatory. When implementing policies it does not seem to respond to some precautionary approach, but rather to the institutional dynamics which characterise each political level. We observed the reinforcement of the European role in the field of health & environment: in attempts to underline institutional cooperation at the federal level in Belgium and to reinforce the authority of the regional government on the Walloon territory. From this case study it is learnt that the new deliberative spaces to be developed should not be embedded in the dominant institutional structures. A structure such as promoted in the wake of "Technology assessment" (Delvenne, 2011) is capable of conciliating production of knowledge and uncertainties (the science pole) with the plurality of social perceptions (the civic pole) and the specific dynamics of the relevant polity (the political pole). New deliberative spaces should be capable of developing the basis for integrated and comparative approach for emerging issues with due attention to its political and institutional dimensions, while maintaining enough distance with the dominant frames and logics. Recently the Flemish administration on Environment, Nature & Energy proposed a note (framework) to deal with uncertain risks. The proposed framework will be tested in a pilot study for potential risks related to non-ionising electromagnetic radiation, and can later be extended to other risks. In a case study on Bisphenol-A (BPA), multi-level political communication was analysed. Political decisions were taken without socio-technical debate (Callon, 1986). The BPA issue was not very high on the social or political agenda in Belgium. There was no crisis, no strong pressure form NGO's. The question was managed first by the European authorities (EFSA & European Commission). The Belgian institutions were waiting for the European position. As the political decision did not encounter a strong contestation from the industry, this was an easy step for the political authorities, in Belgium and at the European level, to symbolically address the issue while avoiding considering the real uncertainties. When the decision was taken to ban the use of BPA in polycarbonate baby bottles, it was a political decision taken with the support of the scientific bodies (Superior Health Council) but without being embedded in any social debate (what about risks related to the chemicals which may substitute BPA?). It meant that the whole of uncertainties on the extent of risks related to the multiple exposures to different endocrine disruptors could not be put at the foreground in a public socio-technical debate. These case studies on the interplay with science, policy and stakeholders, on the framing of an environmental health policy problem, and on the management of complex risks (air pollution, EMF, BPA) contribute to recommendations on their governance. The question then becomes: is it possible to organize a precautionary decision making process to deal with different legitimate frames and the necessary trade-offs when considering policy alternatives? Concretely it is advised to pay attention to the role of a focal point in the process, potentially taken up by public administrations, to the co-production, availability and organisation of knowledge and information, and to the progress of the process. Above all it is important to set up a platform for issue framing and problem definition to highlight key factors that need to be assessed: - Examine the policy and stakeholder learning network related to a specific issue, with special attention to policy domains that are affected by or are affecting the environmental and health issue at stake. Specify who has interests in the issue and who should be involved. An efficient stakeholder network analysis is important for the further progress of the DMP. define who is allowed to take part in the process across different policy areas - Examine the information database before setting up a more integrative approach, both from a scientific (including uncertainties) and technical (alternatives, CBA analysis) point of view and from the side of concerned stakeholders. Policy makers acquire information from different inputs from science, stakeholder organisations, socio-economic actors and the public at large, as well as from administrations and staff members, and are conscious of the structural and constitutional constraints. It is clear that a balanced process of information gathering that is transparent, contributes to better decision making. - Initiate and manage the process: find out who will carry the process, set up a series of interactions between administrations, between administrations and cabinets, between administrations and research, between administrations, research and the public. Usable and meaningful available information on the issue should be communicated clearly to all stakeholders. It is innovative to look at how stakeholders increase their knowledge through different inputs and through communication, information and interaction. - Iterate where needed: information gained in one dialogue should be fed back into other fora. An equilibrium between acceptability – tolerability – uncertainty should be established. - Move forward / conclude. In the total policy cycle the conclusion or decision may be revised, when (1) monitoring of implementation and following evaluation is considered as negative; (2) new knowledge / experience / issues have to take into account. - Ensure an efficient and socially appropriate allocation of the resources and an adequate management of residual risks. Last but not least, in a precautionary approach it is also required, to contribute to the public trust in the decision making process and to construct social acceptance of the final decision. Generally, a precautionary decision making process should be considered as a double-pronged learning dynamics: on one side, the authorities are required to better take into account the multiple frames which abound in our pluralist societies when organising the conditions of political trade-offs for the governance of risks. On the other side, the citizens should have the possibility to, not only understand, but also adopt the decision and its consequences and to conform to its implementation. It is important to develop specific communication processes to successfully implement these two faces of a precautionary approach in the governance of risks, while ensuring this dual learning process. New procedures are currently developed which could support the communication dynamics for promoting multiple frames and comparing openly different alternatives (e.g. open process workshop; atelier scenarios; Delphi). [less ▲]

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See detailDeuxième rapport intermédiaire - Recherche ANACO : analyse et opérationnalisation de la problématique du confinement et de la mise à l’abri en Belgique.
Thiry, Aline ULg; Vanhaeren, Stéphanie ULg; Geukens, Nick ULg et al

Report (2011)

Ce deuxième rapport intermédiaire s’inscrit dans la première phase participative de la recherche ANACO. Pour rappel, cette recherche d’une durée de douze mois a pour objectif principal d’analyser la ... [more ▼]

Ce deuxième rapport intermédiaire s’inscrit dans la première phase participative de la recherche ANACO. Pour rappel, cette recherche d’une durée de douze mois a pour objectif principal d’analyser la problématique de la mise à l’abri/confinement en Belgique et d’aboutir à un plan d’action qui sera mis à la disposition des autorités et des acteurs de la gestion de crise et de la planification d’urgence. La première phase de la recherche, qui avait fait l’objet du précédent rapport, avait permis d’établir un état des lieux à la fois juridique et philosophique de la problématique de la mise à l’abri/confinement en Belgique. Elle consistait en une étude de la littérature accompagnée d’entretiens exploratoires. La phase participative de ce rapport permet d’approfondir les points-clefs relevés lors de la première phase exploratoire à l’aide d’une enquête de type Delphi. Ce rapport contient une première analyse des réponses au Delphi en ligne. Une structuration et une analyse plus poussée de ces résultats ainsi qu’une confrontation avec le public cible feront l’objet d’une troisième phase de recherche. Le rapport commence par un exposé de la méthodologie utilisée et une brève présentation du logiciel implémentant la méthodologie Delphi Mesydel et des caractérisques de l’échantillon. Les détails de l’enquête sont exposés en annexe. Dans un second temps, il sera exposé la synthèse des résultats obtenus lors des deux tours du Delphi en ligne ainsi qu’une brève présentation de l’étude de cas aux Pays-Bas. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvanced exploitation of Ground-Based measurements for Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Applications "AGACC"
De Mazière, Martine; De Backer, Hugo; Carleer, Michel et al

Report (2011)

We live in an era in which human activities are causing significant changes to the atmospheric environment which result in local to global consequences on the ecosystems. Changes in the atmospheric ... [more ▼]

We live in an era in which human activities are causing significant changes to the atmospheric environment which result in local to global consequences on the ecosystems. Changes in the atmospheric composition impact our climate via chemical and dynamical feedback mechanisms; in many instances they also affect air quality, and the health of the biosphere. Monitoring and understanding those changes and their consequences is fundamental to establish adequate actions for adaptation to and mitigation of the environmental changes. Furthermore, after implementation of regulatory measures like the Montreal Protocol, it is necessary to verify whether the measures are effective. This can only be achieved if we have adequate detection methods and a reliable long record of a series of key geophysical parameters. Thus the AGACC project contributes to the provision of basic new knowledge regarding the atmospheric composition and its changes, based on advanced groundbased monitoring, in combination with satellite and numerical modelling data. Its results are integrated in ongoing international research programmes. The general objective of AGACC has been to improve and extend the groundbased detection capabilities for a number of climate-related target species and, based hereupon, analyse past and present observations to derive new information about the atmospheric composition, its variability and long-term changes. Despite the advent of a growing and more performant fleet of Earth Observation satellites, ground-based observations are still indispensable to (1) guarantee long-term continuity, homogeneity and high quality of the data, and (2) to underpin the satellite data for calibration and (long-term) validation. A first target gas is atmospheric water vapour. It is the key trace gas controlling weather and climate. It is also the most important greenhouse gas in the Earth’s atmosphere. Its amount and vertical distribution are changing, but how and why? Especially in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere, the radiative effects of changes in the water vapour are significant and should be quantified. The measurement of water vapour is a hot topic since several years. It is a challenge, because water vapour exhibits a large gradient in its concentration when going from the ground to the stratosphere, and because it is highly variable in time and space. For example, we have found that the time scale of the variations of the total water vapour amount at Jungfraujoch is in the order of minutes. In AGACC, we have therefore investigated various experimental techniques to measure the concentration of water vapour in the atmosphere, focusing on the total column as well as on the vertical distribution in the troposphere up to the lower stratosphere. The retrieval of water vapour vertical profiles and total columns from ground-based FTIR data has been initiated at three very different stations where correlative data for verification are available, namely Ukkel (± sea level, mid-latitude), Ile de La Réunion (± sea level, tropical) and Jungfraujoch (high altitude, mid-latitude), with promising results. In particular, at Jungfraujoch, it has been demonstrated that the precision of the FTIR integrated water vapour (IWV) measurements is of order 2%. The capability to retrieve individual isotopologues of water vapour, and to monitor their daily and diurnal variations, has also been demonstrated. This could open new ways to study in the future the role of water vapour in the radiative balance, the global circulation, precipitation etc. We also started joint exploitation of ground-based FTIR and satellite IASI data for water vapour and its isotopologues, in order to exploit fully the potential of the existing instrumentation. A correction method for the radiosoundings at Ukkel has been successfully implemented, resulting in a homogeneous and reliable time series from 1990 to 2008 from which trends in upper troposphere humidity (UTH) and tropopause characteristics have been derived. One observes a rising UTH until September 2001, followed by a decline, accompanied by a descent and heating of the tropopause up to the turning point and an ascent and cooling afterwards. The changes after September 2001 in the upper troposphere can be explained by surface heating and convective uplift. At Jungfraujoch, one does not observe any significant trend in the total water vapour abundance above the station over the 1988-2010 time period, although significant positive summer and negative winter trends have been detected. We have made a quantitative statistical comparison between ground-based FTIR, CIMEL, GPS and integrated (corrected) radio sounding measurements of the IWV at Ukkel. This work is important to better characterize the different sensors in order to exploit together different observations made by different instruments. A second target species is atmospheric aerosol. There is a very large variety of aerosol both from natural or anthropogenic origin. One of the reasons why they are so important is that they affect the optical properties of the atmosphere. In particular, it has been demonstrated in previous studies that the aerosols have a large impact on the quantity of harmful UV-B radiation received at the Earth’s surface. The latest IPCC Report also stressed that the radiative forcing caused by atmospheric aerosols is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the total radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Better monitoring capabilities of aerosol properties can therefore improve our understanding and forecasting of the atmospheric processes and evolution, and in particular of UV-B and climate changes. Several measurement techniques are now operational in the AGACC consortium for the ground-based monitoring of aerosol properties. These are the Brewer spectrometer and CIMEL observations at Ukkel, the latter contributing also to the AERONET network since July 2006, and the newly developed MAXDOAS observations. Unlike CIMEL and Brewer measurements, that provide the total Aerosol Optical Depth, it has been demonstrated that the MAXDOAS measurements also provide additional information about the vertical distribution of the aerosol extinction in the lowest kilometres of the troposphere. A better understanding of the ultimate capabilities of MAXDOAS aerosol remote sensing has been gained through participation to the international CINDI campaign (Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments ) in summer 2009. The combination of Brewer, CIMEL and MAXDOAS instruments gives us a remote-sensing dataset that will enable a more comprehensive characterization of the tropospheric aerosol optical properties. The usefulness of these aerosol observations has already been demonstrated in the improvement of the UVindex predictions for the general public. Another application is their use as input data in the retrieval of vertical profiles of tropospheric pollutants from MAXDOAS measurements, like tropospheric NO2 and formaldehyde. Third we have focused on a few climate-related trace gases. Changing greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations directly affect the radiative budget of the atmosphere, and therefore climate. But many species known as pollutants like carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons, - often related to fossil fuel or biomass burning -, also affect climate through their role in chemical reactions that produce tropospheric ozone, which is a well-known greenhouse gas, or that modify the lifetime of gases like methane, or the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. Therefore in AGACC, we have focused on the measurement of a number of trace gases that are subject to changing concentrations, that directly or indirectly affect climate, and that are either difficult to monitor or that have not yet been measured from the ground. We have included attempts to observe distinctly some isotopologues, because the isotopic ratios observed in an airmass provide information on its history, and because the FTIR solar absorption measurements provide a rather unique capability hereto. The investigated species are the isotopologues of CH4 and CO, and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), as examples of biomass burning tracers, some hydrocarbons like formaldehyde (HCHO), ethylene (C2H4) and acetylene (C2H2), and HCFC-142b, a replacement product for CFCs and a greenhouse gas. In many cases, retrieval strategies had to be adapted when going from one site to another with different atmospheric conditions, especially when the local humidity and abundances are very different as is the case between Jungfraujoch (dry, high altitude, mid-latitude) and Ile de La Réunion (humid, low altitude, low latitude). Still we have been able to show the feasibility of retrieving particular trace gas information even under difficult conditions. Many of our results have been compared to correlative data, to validate the approach and to gain complementary information. It is also important to note that the retrieval strategies developed in AGACC have regularly been presented to the global Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) UV-Vis and Infrared communities and have often been adopted by others or even proposed for adoption as a standard in the community (e.g., for hydrogen cyanide (HCN)). In particular: We have been able to study the seasonal variations of HCN at the Jungfraujoch and at Ile de La Réunion, and to show the dominant impact of biomass burning. Formaldehyde was studied in much detail at Ukkel, Jungfraujoch and Ile de la Réunion. The challenge for detection at Jungfraujoch is the small abundance (about 10 times smaller than at Ukkel and Ile de La Réunion); a particular observation strategy was developed successfully, resulting in a time series that already shows the day-to-day and seasonal variations. At Ile de La Réunion, comparisons of FTIR, MAXDOAS, satellite and model data have (1) shown the good agreement between the various data sets, but also, (2), the variability of HCHO (diurnal, seasonal, day-to-day), and (3), thanks to the complementarities of the various data sets, they have enabled us to learn more about the long-range transport of Non-methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCS, precursors of HCHO) and deficiencies in the models. It was shown that fast, direct transport of NMVOCS from Madagascar has a significant impact on the HCHO abundance and its variability at Ile de La Réunion, and that this is underestimated in the model. Significant progress was made as to the detection of 13CH4 and CH3D from ground-based FTIR observations, both at Jungfraujoch and Ile de La Réunion. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a d13C data set is derived from ground-based FTIR observations. More work is needed to improve the CH3D retrieval at Ile de La Réunion, and to interpret the results, in combination with models. Also for the first time, 12CO and 13CO have been retrieved individually at Jungfraujoch. The d13C time series shows significant seasonal and interannual changes. As to the hydrocarbon ethylene, it is shown that it can be detected at Jungfraujoch only in spectra at low solar elevation, given its small atmospheric abundance. Regarding acetylene, the observed time series at Jungfraujoch and Ile de La Réunion show clear seasonal variations and enhancements due to the impact of biomass burning events, correlated with enhancements in CO, C2H6 and HCN. It is not clear yet whether we can reliably retrieve the concentration of HCFC- 142b, a replacement product that is increasing strongly in the troposphere. New line parameters for the interfering species HFC-134a are required to confirm/infirm the preliminary results. This highlights again the importance of the laboratory work for providing such parameters. Improved line parameters have been obtained for water vapour and its isotopologues, ethylene and formic acid. These AGACC results have been integrated in the international spectroscopic databases. We also showed that line intensities available around 2096 cm–1 for the 13C16O isotopologue of carbon monoxide in the HITRAN database seem to be accurate to 2%. We failed to improve line intensities for the 13.6 μm region of acetylene. The new data sets that have been derived in AGACC from FTIR and MAXDOAS observations have been archived in the NDACC data centre, where they are available for users (generally modelers and satellite teams). In addition, they are stored locally and are available to users upon request. AGACC results have been reported to the international scientific community, via the literature, via integration in geophysical or spectroscopic databases, and via participation to international research initiatives like the Atmospheric Water Vapour in the Climate System (WAVACS) Cost Action, the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) Working Group on Atmospheric Water Vapour, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) project, the International CINDI campaign, etc. The results have already found important scientific applications. A few examples are worth mentioning: the re-evaluation of methane emissions in the tropics from SCIAMACHY based on the new H2O spectroscopy, and the improved retrievals of HCOOH from the satellite experiments ACE-FTS and IASI, and from the ground. In the longer-term, the AGACC results will no doubt benefit the research in atmospheric sciences –in particular in the monitoring of its composition changes–, which is the fundamental basis of environmental assessment reports for supporting policy makers. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust maximum weighted independent-set problems on interval graphs
Talla Nobibon, Fabrice ULg; Leus, Roel

Report (2011)

We study the maximum weighted independent-set problem on interval graphs with uncertainty on the vertex weights. We use the absolute robustness criterion and the min-max regret criterion to evaluate ... [more ▼]

We study the maximum weighted independent-set problem on interval graphs with uncertainty on the vertex weights. We use the absolute robustness criterion and the min-max regret criterion to evaluate solutions. For a discrete scenario set, we nd that the problem is NP-hard for each of the robustness criteria; we also provide pseudo-polynomial time algorithms when there is a constant number of scenarios and show that the problem is strongly NP-hard when the set of scenarios is unbounded. When the scenario set is a Cartesian product, we prove that the problem is equivalent to a maximum weighted independent-set problem on the same interval graph but without uncertainty for the rst objective function and that the scenario set can be reduced for the second objective function. [less ▲]

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See detailPROJECT SCHEDULING WITH MODULAR PROJECT COMPLETION ON A BOTTLENECK RESOURCE
Coolen, Kris; Wenchao, Wei; Talla Nobibon, Fabrice ULg et al

Report (2011)

In this paper, we model a research-and-development project as consisting of several modules, with each module containing one or more activities. We examine how to schedule the activities of such a project ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we model a research-and-development project as consisting of several modules, with each module containing one or more activities. We examine how to schedule the activities of such a project in order to maximize the expected profit when the activities have a probability of failure and when an activity’s failure can cause its module and thereby the overall project to fail. A module succeeds when at least one of its constituent activities is successfully executed. All activities are scheduled on a scarce resource that is modeled as a single machine. We describe various policy classes, establish the relationship between the classes, develop exact algorithms to optimize over two different classes (one dynamic program and one branch-and-bound algorithm), and examine the computational performance of the algorithms on two randomly generated instance sets. [less ▲]

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See detailNote synthétique sur l'évaluation et le calcul de la vulnérabilité des ménages au Niger : février 2011
Andres, Ludovic ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Report (2011)

L’analyse de la vulnérabilité alimentaire suscite une attention toute particulière des bailleurs de fond. En effet, depuis 1990, l’analyse et l’évaluation de celle-ci permet aux différentes institutions ... [more ▼]

L’analyse de la vulnérabilité alimentaire suscite une attention toute particulière des bailleurs de fond. En effet, depuis 1990, l’analyse et l’évaluation de celle-ci permet aux différentes institutions nationales et internationales présentes au Niger d’élaborer leurs stratégies, de cibler les populations ou zones bénéficiaires de leurs interventions ainsi que de prévenir et gérer les crises alimentaires. Cependant, les nombreuses crises alimentaires chroniques du Niger (1996-1997, 2001, 2004-2005, 2009-2010) suscitent néanmoins un certain questionnement quant à l’efficacité et l’efficience de cette évaluation. Cette note décrira certaines méthodologies d’évaluation de la vulnérabilité alimentaire les plus usitées au Niger. Au total, trois méthodologies ont été caractérisées, celle de la Cellule de Coordination du Système d’Alerte Précoce (CC/SAP), de certains Partenaires Techniques et Financiers (Save The Children, Action Contre la Faim, …) et du CC/SAP et de l’Institut National de la Statistique du Niger (INS-Niger). Cette description permettra de mieux cerner les spécificités de chacune d’elles et d’élaborer certaines remarques et recommandations. Ce document introduira, tout d’abord, le concept de vulnérabilité repris dans la littérature. Ensuite, il décrira les différentes méthodologies de calcul et d’évaluation de la vulnérabilité utilisées au Niger. Enfin, ces méthodologies seront analysées et critiquées en vue de présenter des propositions d’améliorations. Il en ressort que le niveau d’analyse de la vulnérabilité doit être affiné d’un point de vue départemental et communal. Il est essentiel de réaliser une distinction entre les ménages urbains et ruraux étant donné la diversité des stratégies opérées par ces ménages. L’évaluation de la vulnérabilité des ménages pastoraux et/ou transhumants devrait être repensée pour améliorer la prise en compte de ceux-ci. La recommandation principale de cette note est d’augmenter le nombre de ménages de l’échantillon d’analyse dans le but de mieux caractériser la vulnérabilité des ménages urbains, ruraux, pastoraux et de produire des indices de vulnérabilité par commune. [less ▲]

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