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See detailThe influence of self-relevant and self-generated cues on autobiographical memory retrieval
Ernst, Alexandra ULg; Durner, Jef; Moulin, Christopher

Poster (2016)

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See detailThe paradoxes of clam farming in Thaibinh Province, Vietnam
Ngo Thi Thu Hang, ULg; Tran Huu Cuong; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Poster (2016)

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See detailPupil size dynamics during prolonged wakefulness reflects the dual interaction of sleep-homeostasis and the circadian timing system and is related to cortical excitability
Van Egroo, Maxime ULg; Cespedes-Ortiz, Cristian ULg; Ly, Julien et al

Poster (2016)

Objective. We sought to characterize daily variations in pupil size as a function of sleep need and circadian phase. We also assessed second-to-second pupil size variability during prolonged wakefulness ... [more ▼]

Objective. We sought to characterize daily variations in pupil size as a function of sleep need and circadian phase. We also assessed second-to-second pupil size variability during prolonged wakefulness. Methods. Twenty-two healthy young men (22 y.o. ± 2.6) followed a 29h sleep deprivation protocol under constant routine conditions. On twelve occasions, pupil size was recorded (90 Hz sampling rate) while fixating a dot and suppressing eye blinks. Following automatic eye blink and artefact rejection, mean pupil size and average point to point variation in pupil size data were computed. Data were realigned according to individual dim-light melatonin onset determined based on hourly saliva samples. Results. Preliminary analyses indicate that both mean pupil size and pupil size variability show a main effect of circadian phase (PROC MIXED; n = 20; F11,206 > 4.4, p < 0.001). Post hoc analyses show that mean pupil size and pupil size variability increase up to the evening wake maintenance prior to decreasing until the early morning around the putative sleep promoting zone. Conclusion. These data confirm the pupil size and pupil size variability reflect the dual interaction of sleep homeostasis and the circadian timing system. Further analyses will determine how pupil size dynamics relates to makers of brain function. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Fractal Nature of Mars Topography Analyzed via the Wavelet Leaders Method
Kleyntssens, Thomas ULg; Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Poster (2016)

This work studies the scaling properties of Mars topography based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data through the wavelet leaders method (WLM). This approach shows a scale break at 15 km. At small ... [more ▼]

This work studies the scaling properties of Mars topography based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data through the wavelet leaders method (WLM). This approach shows a scale break at 15 km. At small scales, these topographic profiles display a monofractal behavior while a multifractal nature is observed at large scales. The scaling exponents are greater at small scales. They also seem to be influenced by latitude and may indicate a slight anisotropy in topography. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of estetrol on breast cancer development, metastatic dissemination and angiogenesis
Gallez, Anne ULg; Gérard, Céline ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg et al

Poster (2016)

The increased risk of breast cancer and thromboembolism in women who take Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) currently is a major public health problem. The discovery of novel molecules with better safety ... [more ▼]

The increased risk of breast cancer and thromboembolism in women who take Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) currently is a major public health problem. The discovery of novel molecules with better safety profile would provide useful advances for patient care. Estretrol (E4) appears as a promising candidate for HRT. Indeed, in contrast to current treatment containing ethinyl estradiol or estradiol (E2), E4 has a minimal impact on liver cells activity supporting a decreased incidence on thromboembolic events. In preclinical studies, E4 has been effective against the main symptoms of menopause such as hot flushes, vaginal atrophy, and osteoporosis, from a starting dose of 0.3 mg/kg/day. The aim of this study was to define the impact of E4 on breast cancer development when it is used at concentrations effective for menopause symptom relief. Treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer-developing mice (MMTV-PyMT) with several concentrations of E4 has shown that 0.3 mg/kg/day E4 did not increase tumor development and metastasis dissemination. However, at 3mg/kg/day, E4 increased the growth of hormone-dependent tumors and their metastatic dissemination in ovariectomized and intact mice. This effect was similar to the one observed with E2 used at 0.08 mg/kg/day. In an in vivo model of ER-negative tumors, we observed that 3mg/kg/day E4 improved tumor growth by increasing angiogenesis, and subsequently decreasing necrosis and tumor hypoxia. In contrast, 0.3 mg/kg/day E4 did not induce any of these effects on ER-negative tumors and tumor microenvironment. In conclusion, we have shown that 0.3 mg/kg/day E4, already reported to prevent menopause symptoms, does not increase breast tumor growth, metastasis dissemination, and angiogenesis. However, similarly to E2, higher concentrations of E4 are pro-tumorous. These results support that E4, if it is used in strictly controlled clinical applications, could have no or only limited impact on breast cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailHypnose et psychiatrie: actualités et imagerie
HITABATUMA, Hélène ULg; ANSSEAU, Marc ULg

Poster (2016)

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See detailCorrecting Biases in a lower resolution global circulation model with data assimilation
Canter, Martin ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg

Poster (2016)

With this work, we aim at developping a new method of bias correction using data assimilation. This method is based on the stochastic forcing of a model to correct bias. First, through a preliminary run ... [more ▼]

With this work, we aim at developping a new method of bias correction using data assimilation. This method is based on the stochastic forcing of a model to correct bias. First, through a preliminary run, we estimate the bias of the model and its possible sources. Then, we establish a forcing term which is directly added inside the model’s equations. We create an ensemble of runs and consider the forcing term as a control variable during the assimilation of observations. We then use this analysed forcing term to correct the bias of the model. Since the forcing is added inside the model, it acts as a source term, unlike external forcings such as wind. This procedure has been developed and successfully tested with a twin experiment on a Lorenz 95 model. It is currently being applied and tested on the sea ice ocean NEMO LIM model, which is used in the PredAntar project. NEMO LIM is a global and low resolution (2 degrees) coupled model (hydrodynamic model and sea ice model) with long time steps allowing simulations over several decades. Due to its low resolution, the model is subject to bias in area where strong currents are present. We aim at correcting this bias by using perturbed current fields from higher resolution models and randomly generated perturbations. The random perturbations need to be constrained in order to respect the physical properties of the ocean, and not create unwanted phenomena. To construct those random perturbations, we first create a random field with the Diva tool (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis). Using a cost function, this tool penalizes abrupt variations in the field, while using a custom correlation length. It also decouples disconnected areas based on topography. Then, we filter the field to smoothen it and remove small scale variations. We use this field as a random stream function, and take its derivatives to get zonal and meridional velocity fields. We also constrain the stream function along the coasts in order not to have currents perpendicular to the coast. The randomly generated stochastic forcing are then directly injected into the NEMO LIM model’s equations in order to force the model at each timestep, and not only during the assimilation step. Results from a twin experiment will be presented. This method is being applied to a real case, with observations on the sea surface height available from the mean dynamic topography of CNES (Centre national d’études spatiales). The model, the bias correction, and more extensive forcings, in particular with a three dimensional structure and a time-varying component, will also be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of a secondary carotenoid producer microalga of the genus Coelastrella
Corato, Amélie ULg

Poster (2016)

Some green microalgae synthesize secondary carotenoids as protecting agents under stress. These pigments have high value as feed supplement for aquaculture and as health products. The most promising ... [more ▼]

Some green microalgae synthesize secondary carotenoids as protecting agents under stress. These pigments have high value as feed supplement for aquaculture and as health products. The most promising pigment is astaxanthin, because of its antioxidant, antitumoral and anti-inflamatory properties. The most used natural source of this pigment is the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis. However this species grows slowly and lacks robustness for easy cultivation. Therefore, other species are investigated for astaxanthin production. Here, we identified a locally isolated strain as Coelastrella sp. that is a secondary carotenoid producer. [1] A known typical feature of this genus, that we could observed in the strain by scanning electron microcopy, is the presence of meridional ribs. [2] We analyzed the culture conditions and concluded that this strain grows both autotrophically and heterotrophically and is able of fast change in pigment composition under controlled stress conditions. Thanks to HPLC analyses, we determined that the strain accumulates a variety of secondary carotenoids, among which: astaxanthin, cantaxanthin and echinenone. Unidentified compounds will be further analyzed by mass spectrometry. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling children’s mobility and school commuting: a review and key challenges for further research
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg; Cools, Mario ULg

Poster (2016)

Children’s mobility and school travelling are relatively underdeveloped in transport research, especially when compared with commuting to work. Despite it is often argued that a profound analysis of ... [more ▼]

Children’s mobility and school travelling are relatively underdeveloped in transport research, especially when compared with commuting to work. Despite it is often argued that a profound analysis of school-travel patterns has the potential to generate many important insights that may impact transport-system policy and management, the modelling of children mobility, is still in an early stage of development and children are often only considered as constraints to adults’ mobility. In this paper, we argue that innovative modelling frameworks that were recently developed in the field of transportation could be adapted and applied to the mobility of children in order to develop both novel scientific insights and inform the development of policies aiming at increasing active and independent mobility of children, in a broader vision of sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenotypic differentiation of native and introduced populations of Quercus rubra L.
Merceron, Nastasia ULg

Poster (2016)

Native to North America, Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) was introduced in Europe in the XVIIth century for ornamental and forestry purposes. This species is now widespread in European forests due to ... [more ▼]

Native to North America, Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) was introduced in Europe in the XVIIth century for ornamental and forestry purposes. This species is now widespread in European forests due to plantations and natural regeneration. In invasive herbaceous plants, introduced populations are often genetically different from native populations. However, this has been poorly investigated in exotic tree species. Our objective was to explore the phenotypic variation between native and introduced populations of Q. rubra and to test for adaptation to the new environmental conditions since the introduction. We used three progeny test gardens, in South-Western, Central and North-Eastern France, composed of 64 American and 77 European populations. The gardens were settled from 1980s and trees were monitored regularly for growth (diameter, height) and leaf phenology (budburst, coloration). For two years, we have monitored acorn production. Within each garden, data were analyzed using mixed analyses of variance; Qst indexes were calculated to evaluate genetic differentiation between populations. Overall, introduced populations presented higher trait values than native populations: growth rate was higher and spring phenology was advanced. Fruit set was higher in introduced trees, although depending of the year. Qst estimates clearly demonstrated the existence of a high genetic differentiation between native populations, for growth and phenology. Introduced populations presented a lower level of differentiation, significant for phenology, but not for growth. These results suggest several hypotheses: (i) introduced populations only represent a part of the global diversity existing in the native range (ii) populations have evolved since introduction under new environmental selective pressures (ii) populations were selected by man since introduction. These hypotheses are being investigated, notably through a molecular approach. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the structure and the composition of microtubules within supporting cells of the organ of hearing during development.
Renauld, Justine ULg; Freeman, Stephen ULg; Thelen, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2016)

The auditory organ is a highly specialized structure composed by specific cellular types. The sensory cells are characterized by stereocilia at their apex and are necessary for the sound perception. These ... [more ▼]

The auditory organ is a highly specialized structure composed by specific cellular types. The sensory cells are characterized by stereocilia at their apex and are necessary for the sound perception. These cells are supported by supporting cells which contain up to 3000 microtubules and are formed by 15protofilaments (15pf) instead of the canonical 13, a unique fact among vertebrates. It was shown that a β-tubulin isoform can specify the microtubule architecture, such as the expression of the Moth β2 in the Drosophila testes imposed the 16pf structure on the corresponding subset of Drosophila microtubules, which normally contain 13pf. To determine the role of these tubulins in the auditory organ and their possible involvement in the formation of the unusual 15pf microtubules of supporting cells, we studied the spatiotemporal localization of five -tubulin isotypes (β1 to 5) as well as acetyl-α-tubulin within the hearing organ during development in rodents. By using confocal microscopy, we showed that with the exception of the β3-tubulin isoform that was specific to nerve fibres, all the different β-tubulin isoforms and acetyl-α-tubulin were mainly present in the supporting cells. Contrary to β1-4-tubulins, we also found that the β5-tubulin isoform appeared only at a key stage of the postnatal development. By using transmission electron microscopy, we examined the fine structure of microtubules at an early and a late postnatal stage. Our TEM study indicated that these cells are composed by 13pf microtubules at P2, but by 15pf microtubules at P25. We revealed further that this developmental stage coincide with the formation of two separate bundles of microtubules from a unique one in these supporting cells. In conclusion, the architecture and composition of microtubules present in the supporting cells change during development of the organ of Corti. Further experiments are now required to determine if these changes are related to the appearance of β5-tubulin. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen NICE is Not Nice: Performance of Two ICU Glycaemic Control Protocols
Uyttendaele, Vincent ULg; Dickson, Jennifer; Stewart, Kent et al

Poster (2016)

Objective: Hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and blood glucose (BG) variability are associated with worsened outcomes in critical care. However, NICE-SUGAR trial (unexpectedly?) showed no clinical benefit from ... [more ▼]

Objective: Hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and blood glucose (BG) variability are associated with worsened outcomes in critical care. However, NICE-SUGAR trial (unexpectedly?) showed no clinical benefit from intensive insulin therapy. This study compares the table-based NICE-SUGAR and model-based STAR protocols to assess their relative capability to achieve safe, effective control for all patients. Method: Validated virtual patients (n=443) were used to simulate glycemic outcomes of the NICE-SUGAR and STAR protocols. Key outcomes assess tightness and safety of control for all patients: %BG in 80–144 mg/dL range (PTR); Per-Patient Mean BG (PPM_BG); and Incidence Hypoglycemia (BG<40 mg/dL). These metrics assess performance overall, for each patient, and safety. Results are assessed for NICE-SUGAR measuring per-protocol (~24/day) and at reported average rate (~3-hourly; ~8/day). STAR measures 1-3-hourly, averaging 12/day. Result: Per-protocol, STAR provided tight control, with higher PTR (90.7% vs. 78.3%) and tighter median [IQR] PPM_BG (112[106-119] vs. 117[106–137] mg/dL), and greater safety from hypoglycemia (5 (1%) vs. 10 patients (2.5%)). The 5-95th percentile range PPM_BG for NICE-SUGAR (97–185 mg/dL) shows ~5% of NICE-SUGAR patients had mean BG above 180mg/dL matching clinically reported performance. STAR’s 90th percentile PPM_BG range was (97–146 mg/dL). Measuring as recorded clinically, NICE-SUGAR had PTR of 77%, PPM_BG of 122 [110-140] mg/dL and 24(6%) of patients experienced hypoglycemia. These results match clinically reported values well (mean BG 115 vs. 118 mg/dL clinically vs. simulation, clinically 7% of patients had a hypoglycemic event) Conclusions: Glycemic control protocols need to be both safe and effective for all patients before potential clinical benefits can be assessed. NICE-SUGAR (measured ~24/day or as reported ~8/day) was unable to achieve this outcome for all patients. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of Ikbζ in glioblastomas and its potential implication in radioresistance
Dubois, Nadège ULg; Willems, Marie; Kroonen, Jérôme et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailUsing Next Generation Sequencing to characterize species diets: a study case with faeces of wild boar in the Spanish Pyrenees
Mouton, Alice ULg; Espelta, Jose Maria; Baurain, Denis ULg et al

Poster (2016)

The genomic era offer an exciting opportunity to establish biodiversity assessment for plants and animals. More specifically, DNA metabarcoding can be used as a proxy for the biodiversity existing in a ... [more ▼]

The genomic era offer an exciting opportunity to establish biodiversity assessment for plants and animals. More specifically, DNA metabarcoding can be used as a proxy for the biodiversity existing in a sample (soil, water, faeces,..) and therefore it represents a powerful and a non invasive tool to answer concerns regarding ecological questions (conservation, restoration). To illustrate such prospect, we conducted a study on the expanding wild boar populations in the Spanish Pyrenees. Over the last decades, the populations of wild boar are growing in the Iberian peninsula mainly due to their high adaptability to new environments, new climates, varied diets and high reproduction rates. Despite the economic interest of the species in the Peninsula, this expansion cause many damage on ecosystems, humans and farming practices. By moving higher in altitude, it has been suggested that the wild boar populations might be responsible for the rapid decline of the endangered capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) populations in the Pyrenees. By searching for food, they come accross the ground nesting bird nest and gobble the eggs. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the diet of the wild boar populations in higher altitude in the Spanish Pyrenees. 81 faecal samples collected during summer and autumn 2014 in the Aigues Tortes National Park have been extracted, amplified and sequenced using the Illumina Technology. With this method, a precise estimation of the animal prey existing in the wild boar faeces was possible and will eventually allow wild life managers to apply concrete management measures for this expanding species. [less ▲]

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See detailIngénierie des ambiances urbaines: développement d'un dispositif pédagogique mixant approche numérique et créativité
Nguyen, Ngoc Luan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

Poster (2016)

Le présent poster décrit le dispositif pédagogique mis en œuvre pour accompagner les étudiants dans la conception et l’évaluation d’ambiances urbaines grâce à la combinaison d’un apprentissage par projet ... [more ▼]

Le présent poster décrit le dispositif pédagogique mis en œuvre pour accompagner les étudiants dans la conception et l’évaluation d’ambiances urbaines grâce à la combinaison d’un apprentissage par projet et de la modélisation numérique des projets développés à l’échelle du quartier. Cette activité de formation répond aux sept critères essentiels d’une situation-problème en apprentissage par projet. Ce poster résume l’expérience accumulée dans l’application de ce dispositif pédagogique innovant. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic differentiation of native and introduced populations of Quercus rubra L
Merceron, Nastasia ULg

Poster (2016)

Native to North America, Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) was introduced in Europe in the XVIIth century for ornamental and forestry purposes. This species is now widespread in European forests due to ... [more ▼]

Native to North America, Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) was introduced in Europe in the XVIIth century for ornamental and forestry purposes. This species is now widespread in European forests due to plantations and natural regeneration. In invasive herbaceous plants, introduced populations are often genetically different from native populations. However, this has been poorly investigated in exotic tree species. Our objective was to explore the phenotypic variation between native and introduced populations of Q. rubra and to test for adaptation to the new environmental conditions since the introduction. We used three progeny test gardens, in South-Western, Central and North-Eastern France, composed of 106 American and European populations with 1-25 families per population. The gardens were settled from 1980s and trees were monitored regularly for growth (diameter, height) and leaf phenology (budburst, coloration). Since trees had reached sexual maturity, we have monitored acorn production for two years. Within each garden, data were analyzed using mixed analyses of variance; Qst indexes were calculated to evaluate genetic differentiation between populations. Overall, introduced populations presented higher trait values than native populations: growth rate was higher and spring phenology was advanced. Fruit set was higher in introduced trees, although depending of the year. Qst estimates clearly demonstrated the existence of a high genetic differentiation between native populations, for growth and phenology. Introduced populations presented a lower level of differentiation than native populations. These results suggest several hypotheses: (i) introduced populations only represent a part of the global diversity existing in the native range (ii) populations have evolved since introduction under new environmental selective pressures (ii) populations were selected by man since introduction. These hypotheses are being investigated, notably through a molecular approach. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic relatedness of the memoranda prevents older adults from benefitting from unitization
Delhaye, Emma ULg; Tibon, Roni; Gronau, Nurit et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailAre Survivors Easier to Control? Why the Association of Glycemia and Mortality in Critical Care is Real
Uyttendaele, Vincent ULg; Dickson, Jennifer; Stewart, Kent et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailSleep deprivation affects brain global cortical responsiveness
Gaggioni, Giulia ULg; Chellappa; Ly et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailDevelopment of aquaculture in North Vietnam: influence on the living standards and gender division of family labor
Caulier, Henri; Tran Thi Thap, Hieu; Tran Thi Nang, Thu et al

Poster (2016)

During previous years, along with the overall development of Vietnam, the fisheries sector has made great progress in terms of output and has remained as a very important sector of Vietnam’s economy. The ... [more ▼]

During previous years, along with the overall development of Vietnam, the fisheries sector has made great progress in terms of output and has remained as a very important sector of Vietnam’s economy. The average growth rate of this sector has been 7.9% per year –contributing greatly to the industrialization and modernization of the agriculture and rural sectors of the country. Since 2006, Vietnam has been globally ranked among the top 10 leading exporting countries in fisheries. To cope with these new circumstances, the aquaculture sector must grow while reducing emissions and pollution. Moreover, the value they generate should be distributed fairly, in order to improve the living conditions of producers, while the risks must be shared among all stakeholders. In this context, il will be also appropriate to conduct specific research including gender analysis of aquaculture value chain. The main objective of this paper is to present the main results of a field research conducted in the northern Vietnam and related to a specific fresh water aquaculture production system. This study was conducted to (1) describe and understand the division of family labor in aquaculture and (2) make a diagnose about economic situation of the households in aquaculture. [less ▲]

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See detailGérer les décharges d’hier pour construire les villes de demain
Dumont, Gaël ULg; Robert, Tanguy; Marck, Nicolas et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailLOCAL PARAMETERS THAT INFLUENCE THE LOCAL GROWTH OF ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSMS
Martufi, Giampaolo; Liljeqvist, Moritz Lindquist; SAKALIHASAN, Natzi ULg et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailToward the Characterisation of the Pharmacological Action of a Series of AMPAR Modulators using a PET Probe
Manos-Turvey, Alexandra ULg

Poster (2016)

Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) play a key role in the majority of fast central nervous system excitatorysynaptic transmission, and are divided into three sub-groups: NMDA, AMPA and kainate ... [more ▼]

Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) play a key role in the majority of fast central nervous system excitatorysynaptic transmission, and are divided into three sub-groups: NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors.(1) AMPA receptors (AMPARs) have been extensively investigated and are recognised for their involvement in long-term potentiation (LTP), linked to the processes of learning and memory. As such, AMPAR represents a valid cognitive enhancer target, particularly in the fight against Alzheimer’s disease. (2,3) Benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides have emerged as important allosteric modulators of AMPARs, based upon the discovery of cyclothiazide AMPAR activity in 1993 (Fig. 1).(4) Recently, BPAM121 was synthesised in the group, with improved activity and metabolic stability compared to precursor BPAM97 (Fig. 1).(5) This work documents an investigation into the pharmacological action of this class of compounds through the synthesis and initial optimisation of (18F)-labelled BPAM121, to be used as a PET probe in vivo. Biological evaluation of this compound in vivo will follow. References 1) S. F. Traynelis et al., Pharmacol. Rev., 2010, 62, 405-496. 2) J. Keifer, Z. Zheng, Eur. J. Neurosci., 2010, 32, 269-277. 3) L. Gao et al., J. Neurochem., 2016, 136, 620-636. 4) K. A. Yamada, C.-M. Tang, J. Neurosci., 1993, 13, 3904-3915. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of wheel traffic on the physical properties of a Luvisol under reduced and conventional tillage
Saur, Marie-Laure ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg; Roisin, Christian et al

Poster (2016)

Soil compaction is a complex mechanism which results in a decrease of soil porosity and an increase of soil strength. Such effects may reduce crop yield since they are harmful for root growth, germination ... [more ▼]

Soil compaction is a complex mechanism which results in a decrease of soil porosity and an increase of soil strength. Such effects may reduce crop yield since they are harmful for root growth, germination, mesofauna and bacterial life. Soil compaction may also reduce hydraulic conductivity which increases the risk of runoff, contamination of surface water, erosion and emission of greenhouse gases due to anaerobic processes. In the context of sustainable agriculture, it is crucial to characterise the impact of the agricultural techniques on the compaction state in the arable layer due to machine traffic. For this purpose, Soil samples were taken in a Luvisol at different depths, on plots under longterm reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT). The impact of wheel traffic on the physical properties of the soils was also studied. The experimental approach consists in measuring traditional macroscopic soil properties such as bulk density and precompression stress, and combining them with pore size distribution obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry. Automatic cone index measurements were initially performed to map the soil resistance and easily identify the sampling depths. The measurements revealed a plough pan at 30-cm depth under both CT and RT. Nevertheless, the subsoil under RT showed pieces of evidence of a natural regeneration process of the microporosity. The impact of wheel traffic was studied in RT and CT plots. It was shown that the passage of heavy machine such as beet harvester coupled to water content close to the optimum proctor is clearly unfavourable in terms of compaction. The measurements revealed large modifications of soil structure in the topsoil of CT, whereas the soil structure slightly changes through depth. However, the latter remains the more problematic case since the soil will not be loosened by tillage anymore, resulting in strongly compacted soil years after years. In addition to the experimental approach, numerical modelling was used in order to predict the soil compaction. A finite element method was used and the soil behaviour was modelled by an elastoplastic law (modified Cam-Clay model). The model parameters were calibrated from the experimental measurements. The simulations allowed to compare the porosity and the surface deformation after wheel traffic with the experiments. The variations of machine weight and tyre pressure were numerically studied and it was showed that the machine weight has an influence in the topsoil and the subsoil, whereas the tyre pressure affects only the topsoil. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel protocol for the design of artificial (β/α)8-barrel proteins
Martina, Cristina ULg; Figueroa Yévenes, Maximiliano ULg; Moretti, Rocco et al

Poster (2016)

The design of protein de novo is an emerging field in biochemistry, where artificial proteins are first designed in silico and then validated experimentally. This research, which rests mainly on our ... [more ▼]

The design of protein de novo is an emerging field in biochemistry, where artificial proteins are first designed in silico and then validated experimentally. This research, which rests mainly on our current understanding of protein structure, function, folding, stability and solubility, contributes to expand our knowledge of proteins in general. Our group has a long tradition in the design of artificial (β/α)8 -barrel proteins (called Octarellins). This fold is extremely interesting because it is widespread in nature (10% of the known proteins contain this fold) and in catalysis (it is present in 5/6 classes of enzyme). Here we present a protocol to design de novo (β/α)8-barrels with the more recent and best performing tools: Rosetta and Modeller (modelling softwares), and GROMACS (molecular dynamic simulations). First, 4000 artificial backbone structures were created with the use of modelling packages Rosetta and Modeller. 54 out of them were selected as targets for the following steps of sequence design and energy minimization (10 cycles), in order to find the best sequence to fit each target. More than 10000 different artificial sequences were created. Selection steps were performed in order to reduce the number of candidates for each target and the best ones were subjected to molecular dynamic simulation. Among this, 5 models were finally chosen for gene synthesis and experimental validation, and are currently being tested for expression in E. coli and preliminary purification. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between model simulations and observations of tracer transport using MRI in the root zone.
Vanderborght, Jan; Koch, Axelle; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabine et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailComparison of different assimilation schemes in an operational assimilation system with Ensemble Kalman Filter
Yan, Yajing; Barth, Alexander ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg et al

Poster (2016)

In this paper, four assimilation schemes, including an intermittent assimilation scheme (INT) and three incremental assimilation schemes (IAU 0, IAU 50 and IAU 100), are compared in the same assimilation ... [more ▼]

In this paper, four assimilation schemes, including an intermittent assimilation scheme (INT) and three incremental assimilation schemes (IAU 0, IAU 50 and IAU 100), are compared in the same assimilation experiments with a realistic eddy permitting primitive equation model of the North Atlantic Ocean using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The three IAU schemes differ from each other in the position of the increment update window that has the same size as the assimilation window. 0, 50 and 100 correspond to the degree of superposition of the increment update window on the current assimilation window. Sea surface height, sea surface temperature, and temperature profiles at depth collected between January and December 2005 are assimilated. Sixty ensemble members are generated by adding realistic noise to the forcing parameters related to the temperature. The ensemble is diagnosed and validated by comparison between the ensemble spread and the model/observation difference, as well as by rank histogram before the assimilation experiments The relevance of each assimilation scheme is evaluated through analyses on thermohaline variables and the current velocities. The results of the assimilation are assessed according to both deterministic and probabilistic metrics with independent/semi-independent observations. For deterministic validation, the ensemble means, together with the ensemble spreads are compared to the observations, in order to diagnose the ensemble distribution properties in a deterministic way. For probabilistic validation, the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) is used to evaluate the ensemble forecast system according to reliability and resolution. The reliability is further decomposed into bias and dispersion by the reduced centered random variable (RCRV) score in order to investigate the reliability properties of the ensemble forecast system. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of commercial membranes tailored as 3D in vitro cell models
Romano, Ilaria ULg; Tilkin, Rémi ULg; Hubaux, Roland et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailGaseous micro-emboli removal during priming procedure using pulsatile flow with 4 different adult oxygenators with integrated arterial filter and open reservoir
HELLA, Dominique ULg

Poster (2016)

4 oxygenators with open reservoir and integrated arterial filter were tested in pulsatile flow, during priming procedure. 2 got better results. We can not conclude if we could get the same results in ... [more ▼]

4 oxygenators with open reservoir and integrated arterial filter were tested in pulsatile flow, during priming procedure. 2 got better results. We can not conclude if we could get the same results in clinical practice with blood and surgical events... [less ▲]

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See detailProteomic landscapes of Pachycondila villosa ant venom by nano-scale chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry
Cologna Takeno, Camila; Degueldre, Michel; Shibao, Priscilla et al

Poster (2016)

Introduction: It is estimated that the total number of molecules present in animal venoms is a collection of 40 million different compounds and, despite the efforts made, less than 0,01% of those ... [more ▼]

Introduction: It is estimated that the total number of molecules present in animal venoms is a collection of 40 million different compounds and, despite the efforts made, less than 0,01% of those compounds was identified and characterized to date. However, recent progresses in proteomic, in parallel with the advances of mass spectrometry have contributed to the study of those bio-libraries. The sensitivity improvement of these instruments allows the study of minimal amounts of sample still yielding a wealth of information. The present work aimed to perform a deep proteomic analysis of the venom from the ant Pachycondilyla villosa focusing on the de novo sequencing and the characterization of post translational modifications using high resolution mass spectrometers. Methods: The crude venom (0,5 ug) of P. villosa ants collected on Panga Natural Reserve (Uberlandia-Minas Gerais- Brazil) was diluted in 0,2% of formic acid and injected into a nanoACQUITY ULPC equipped with a monolithic PepSwift Capillary column 100µm x 25, hyphened to a Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The elution of the compounds was performed with a gradient of 3 to 50% of solution B in 80 minutes (A: H2O/FA 0.1%; B: ACN) at flow rate of 1 µL/min. All mass spectrometry analyses were performed in data dependent analysis (DDA) mode that automatically triggers the MS/MS experiments. The top 10 most intense peaks of each MS scan was fragmented by high-energy dissociation (HCD) and their corresponding MS/MS spectra were acquired. Preliminary data: Animal venoms are considered a rich source of biologically active compounds, which has been constantly selected and refined by the processes of natural evolution, in which each molecule is endowed with pharmacological properties highly valuable for scientific purposes. Despite the commitment, the exploration of these bio-libraries remains limited which might be related to the technological limitations that prevent full-scale investigation of these venoms. In addition, the conventional methods used to explore animal venoms are still time-consuming and require large amounts of samples, which restrict the studies for a few species. Unquestionably, the advances of proteomics and mass spectrometry instrumentations benefited a great deal the research on hymenoptera venom. Mostly due to their small size and therefore scarcely collected venom, this order has always been neglected and considered unfeasible to be studied through the known strategies. The present work represents the first report concerning the venom composition of P. villosa ant. The preliminary results already highlight the complexity of this venom, which showed to be composed by over 5000 different molecules. Most of those components fall into the 800- 4000 Da range, which is in agreement with other studies regarding ant´s venom composition. Most of the proteomics studies concerning ant venoms already revealed the presence of linear peptides below 5000 Da as major components. Those small peptides usually display antimicrobial activity and some of them hold additional insecticidal activity. Novel aspect: The results obtained already point out the biotechnological potential of P. villosa venom and highlight’s its complexity [less ▲]

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See detailExploration de la mémoire autobiographique et du self dans un cas de négligence spatiale unilatérale chronique
Ernst, Alexandra ULg; Gourisse, Laurène; Wauquiez, Grégoire et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailThe effect of aging on associative memory for semantically-related word pairs
Folville, Adrien; Delhaye, Emma ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg

Poster (2016)

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See detailGalectin-1 is involved in osteoclast biology
Muller, Joséphine ULg; Binsfeld, Marilène; DUBOIS, Sophie ULg et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailFaire preuve de réflexion éthique pour poser un acte professionnel : une compétence transversale développée tout au long du Master en logopédie
Martinez Perez, Trecy ULg; Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULg; Leroy, Sandrine ULg et al

Poster (2016)

Le code éthique de la profession constitue un point de départ pour guider les actes mais le professionnel de la santé doit régulièrement aller au-delà de celui-ci et faire preuve de réflexion pour ... [more ▼]

Le code éthique de la profession constitue un point de départ pour guider les actes mais le professionnel de la santé doit régulièrement aller au-delà de celui-ci et faire preuve de réflexion pour analyser les situations complexes au niveau moral qui peuvent survenir (Purtilo & Doherty., 2011). L’équipe enseignante du Master en Logopédie de l’Université de Liège (Belgique) a souhaité travailler cette compétence transversale chez les étudiants au cours des cinq années du Master en Logopédie à travers plusieurs dispositifs d’apprentissage complémentaires. Tout d’abord, au cours du Bachelier, l’étudiant est amené à découvrir le code éthique et déontologique de la profession, à identifier les principes de ce code dans une situation professionnelle ciblée puis dans une variété de situations professionnelles. Ensuite, au cours du Master, l’étudiant est amené à inclure une réflexion éthique dans les actes qu’il pose durant ses stages sur le terrain (en contexte monodisciplinaire puis en contexte multidisciplinaire), à discuter des principes dans un contexte d’intervision/supervision avec d’autres étudiants et un tuteur (pour un dispositif similaire en Sciences infirmières, voir Blomberg & Bisholt, 2015) et, finalement, à susciter une réflexion critique chez ses pairs sur une question éthique et déontologique. Ces dispositifs d’apprentissage et leur complémentarité, ainsi que les perspectives d’évaluation seront développés dans le poster. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification d’indicateurs de la transition forestière en lien avec les impacts de la déforestation sur les socio-écosystèmes en Afrique centrale
Gillet, Pauline ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg

Poster (2015, December 26)

La théorie de la transition forestière lie l’évolution du couvert forestier au temps (Mather, 1992). Dans la première phase, le couvert forestier est très dense. Il diminue ensuite avec l’augmentation de ... [more ▼]

La théorie de la transition forestière lie l’évolution du couvert forestier au temps (Mather, 1992). Dans la première phase, le couvert forestier est très dense. Il diminue ensuite avec l’augmentation de la densité de population qui pratique la défriche pour la production agricole et utilise le bois pour répondre aux besoins en énergie et en bois d’œuvre. Dans un troisième temps, l’économie se spécialise, l’agriculture s’intensifie et est pratiquée sur les terres les plus productives et le rôle de l’écosystème forestier dans l’économie diminue. L’abandon des terres les moins productives permet la recolonisation forestière visible sur la courbe de transition. La présente étude tente d’identifier et de proposer des indicateurs d’occupation spatiale permettant, sur base d’images de télédétection, de prévoir la position réelle d’un site sur la courbe de transition forestière. Ensuite, l’étude des socio-écosystèmes en lien avec la transition forestière permet de démontrer l’impact de la diminution du couvert forestier sur le fonctionnement des sociétés humaines. Nous nous sommes penchés sur différents aspects caractérisant les activités des populations locales dans trois sites d’étude situés sur un gradient de déforestation en Afrique centrale tels que la composition de repas et l’origine des aliments. On observe que la déforestation induit une diminution des composants issus des activités fortement liées à l’écosystème telles que la chasse, la pêche ou la collecte au profit de l’agriculture et de l’élevage. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganocatalytic coupling of carbon dioxide with epoxides: the unexpected booster effect of fluoroalcohols
Grignard, Bruno ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg; Alves, Margot ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 19)

Valorising CO2 as a C1 feedstock for producing added value building blocks is seducing as it is a free and in exhaustive waste resulting from human activity. Carbon dioxide is a thermodynamically and ... [more ▼]

Valorising CO2 as a C1 feedstock for producing added value building blocks is seducing as it is a free and in exhaustive waste resulting from human activity. Carbon dioxide is a thermodynamically and kinetically stable molecule that can be converted into cyclic carbonates by coupling with epoxides. Cyclic carbonates are valuable products that find applications as solvents, electrolytes or as monomers for polyurethanes synthesis. Although the CO2/epoxide coupling reaction has been extensively studied, the development of organocatalysts that are highly efficient under mild experimental conditions still remains a challenge. Onium salts are the most common catalysts that show reasonable catalytic activity at high pressure (> 100 bars) and high temperature (> 100°C) only. Fortunately, the efficiency of these organocatalysts can be improved by addition of appropriate hydrogen bond donors activators (HBD). In this talk, we will report the development of a new highly efficient catalytic platform consisting in an onium halide salt combined with HBD activators for the fast and solvent-free synthesis of cyclic carbonates by coupling CO2 with epoxides. The cocatalytic effect of series of HBDs will be demonstrated by detailed online kinetics studies under pressure using Raman or IR spectroscopy. We will show that our new organocatalytic platform facilitates the fast conversion of epoxy groups into cyclic carbonates under mild experimental conditions, and can be easily implemented to the modification of epoxidized vegetable oils. The synergistic effects between HBDs and onium salt will be highlighted by a detailed mechanistic study of the reaction through DFT calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat tracer and solute tests in an alluvial aquifer: field experiment and inverse modelling
Dassargues, Alain ULg; Klepikova, Maria; Jamin, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 18)

Using heat as an active tracer in different types of aquifers is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential interest of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a ... [more ▼]

Using heat as an active tracer in different types of aquifers is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential interest of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer in a piezometer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in the recovery well and in monitoring wells. To get insights in the 3D characteristics of the heat transport mechanisms the space-filling arrangement of observation wells was used. The breakthrough curves measured in the recovery well showed that heat transfer in the alluvial aquifer is slower and more dispersive than solute transport. Recovery is very low for heat while in the same time it is measured as relatively high for the solute tracer. This is due to the fact that heat diffusion is larger than molecular diffusion, implying that exchange between groundwater and the porous medium matrix is far more significant for heat than for solute tracers. Temperature breakthrough curves in other piezometers are contrasted with what would be expected in an ideal layered aquifer. They reveal strongly unequal lateral and vertical components of the transport mechanisms. The observed complex behavior of the heat plume was explained by the groundwater flow gradient on the site and heterogeneities of hydraulic conductivity field. By using numerical model of heat and flow coupled with pilot points inverse approach main preferential paths were characterized. [less ▲]

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See detailQUANTIFYING CHEMICAL REACTIONS BY USING MIXING ANALYSIS IN GROUNDWATER-RIVER INTERFACE
Jurado Elices, Anna ULg; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesus et al

Poster (2015, December 16)

This work is motivated by a sound understanding of the chemical processes that affect the organic pollutants in an urban aquifer. Urban aquifers may suffer pollution from different recharge sources such ... [more ▼]

This work is motivated by a sound understanding of the chemical processes that affect the organic pollutants in an urban aquifer. Urban aquifers may suffer pollution from different recharge sources such as leakage from sewer and septic systems, seepage from rivers, seawater intrusion, and losses from water supply network. As a result, a wide range of organic pollutants are found in urban aquifers (Fig. 1). Since these pollutants reach groundwater environment, their occurrence depends on simultaneous transport and biogeochemical processes. However, the quantification of these processes is not an easy task. The objective of this work is to propose an approach to quantify the chemical processes that occurs when river water infiltrates an aquifer. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst Analysis of Martian Nightglow Seasonal Variations Observed by MAVEN's Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; IUVS team

Poster (2015, December 15)

We report results from a study of nitric oxide nightglow over the northern hemisphere of Mars during winter and southern hemisphere during equinox. We present observations of the nitric oxide δ and γ band ... [more ▼]

We report results from a study of nitric oxide nightglow over the northern hemisphere of Mars during winter and southern hemisphere during equinox. We present observations of the nitric oxide δ and γ band emissions between 190 and 270 nm by the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph on the MAVEN spacecraft. The emission reveals recombination of N and O atoms dissociated on the dayside of Mars, and is known to trace upper atmosphere hemispheric circulation patterns. We extend previous studies to higher latitudes, finding brighter emissions closer to the poles as predicted from global circulation models. Statistically significant variability suggests variation of the fluxes of N and O carried from the dayside thermosphere, as well as possible variations of the wind pattern in the nightside thermosphere and mesosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling Pacific Northwest carbon and water cycling using CARAIB Dynamic Vegetation Model
Kim, John B; Dury, Marie ULg; Still, Christopher J et al

Poster (2015, December 14)

While uncertainties remain regarding projected temperature and precipitation changes, climate warming is already affecting ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Decrease in ecosystem productivity as ... [more ▼]

While uncertainties remain regarding projected temperature and precipitation changes, climate warming is already affecting ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Decrease in ecosystem productivity as well as increase in mortality of some plant species induced by drought and disturbance have been reported. Here, we applied the process-based dynamic vegetation model CARAIB to PNW to simulate the response of water and carbon cycling to current and future climate change projections. The vegetation model has already been successfully applied to Europe to simulate plant physiological response to climate change. We calibrated CARAIB to PNW using global Plant Functional Types. For calibration, the model is driven with the gridded surface meteorological dataset UIdaho MACA METDATA with 1/24-degree (~4-km) resolution at a daily time step for the period 1979-2014. The model ability to reproduce the current spatial and temporal variations of carbon stocks and fluxes was evaluated using a variety of available datasets, including eddy covariance and satellite observations. We focused particularly on past severe drought and fire episodes. Then, we simulated future conditions using the UIdaho MACAv2-METDATA dataset, which includes downscaled CMIP5 projections from 28 GCMs for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We evaluated the future ecosystem carbon balance resulting from changes in drought frequency as well as in fire risk. We also simulated future productivity and drought-induced mortality of several key PNW tree species. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating the performance of short-term heat storage in alluvial aquifer with 4D electrical resistivity tomography and hydrological monitoring
Robert, Tanguy; Paulus, Claire; Bolly, Pierre-Yves et al

Poster (2015, December 14)

In the context of energy demand side management (DSM), energy storage solutions are needed to stock energy during high production periods and recover energy during high demand periods. Among currently ... [more ▼]

In the context of energy demand side management (DSM), energy storage solutions are needed to stock energy during high production periods and recover energy during high demand periods. Among currently studied solutions, storing energy in the subsurface through heat pumps and/or exchangers (thermal energy storage) is relatively simple with low investment costs. However, the design and functioning of such systems have strong interconnections with the geology of the site which may be complex and heterogeneous, making predictions difficult. In this context, local temperature measurements are necessary but not sufficient to model heat flow and transport in the subsurface. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) provides spatially distributed information on the temperature distribution in the subsurface. In this study, we monitored, with 4D ERT combined with multiple hydrological measurements in available wells, a short-term heat storage experiment in a confined alluvial aquifer. We injected heated water (ΔT=30K) during 6 hours with a rate of 3 m³/h, stored during 3 days, and then we pumped it back to estimate the energy balance. We collected ERT data sets using 9 parallel profiles of 21 electrodes and cross-lines measurements. Inversion results clearly show the ability of ERT to delimit the thermal plume growth during injection, the diffusion and decrease of temperature during storage, and the decrease in size after pumping. Quantitative interpretation of ERT is difficult at this stage due to strong spatial variations of the total dissolved solid content in the aquifer, due to historical chloride contamination of the site. Energy balance shows that up to 75% of the energy can be easily recovered with an adapted strategy in the context of DSM. Short-term heat storage in alluvial aquifer is efficient and ERT is a valuable tool to image and estimate the temperature distribution in the subsurface. [less ▲]

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See detailINVESTIGATING MODEL DEFICIENCIES IN THE GLOBAL BUDGET OF ETHANE
Tzompa-Sosa, Z. A.; Keller, C. A.; Turner, A. J. et al

Poster (2015, December 14)

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See detailAnalyse de la répartition spatiale des restes fauniques du site éémien de Caours. Apport des systèmes d'information géographique.
Moreau, Gwénaëlle ULg

Poster (2015, December 12)

The Palaeolithic deposit of Caours, located in the Somme, is the only Eemian site in Northern Europe in interglacial context. This site show an incredible conservation of faunal remains spread out over a ... [more ▼]

The Palaeolithic deposit of Caours, located in the Somme, is the only Eemian site in Northern Europe in interglacial context. This site show an incredible conservation of faunal remains spread out over a large area and a recurrence Human occupation. That gave us a large amount of data about this period of Neanderthal history. We now questioning about the choice of this locality and the spatial organisation of Neanderthal. Then, spatial analysis using the Geographic Information System (GIS) appear to being a useful tool to answer it. We show the consequent availability of water, prey and tool raw material. Neanderthalians was opportunistic hunters of cervidae. There has also eat a heavier prey as aurochs and rhino by trapping or scavenging. Then Neanderthal of Caours butchering with tool made in-situ eating the meat and the marrow. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ICOS Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory: long term greehouse gas flux measurements
Hurdebise, Quentin ULg; De Ligne, Anne ULg

Poster (2015, December 10)

Presentation of the Vielsalm ICOS Terrestrial Observatory: site management, data available, data access, flux temporal dynamic and flux relation with climate variables.

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See detailAnalytical developments to assess the crashworthiness of an offshore wind turbine jacket impacted by a ship
Pire, Timothée ULg; Le Sourne, Hervé; Buldgen, Loïc ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 10)

As the number of offshore wind farms is constantly increasing, impacts between ships and wind turbines is becoming a major concern. Nowadays, design offices use finite elements simulations to assess the ... [more ▼]

As the number of offshore wind farms is constantly increasing, impacts between ships and wind turbines is becoming a major concern. Nowadays, design offices use finite elements simulations to assess the crashworthiness of offshore supporting structures, which give accurate results but is time demanding. There is therefore a need for a faster method, especially during the pre-design stage. The purpose of this research is to develop analytical formulations, based on the so-called continuous elements method in order to compute the resistance of offshore wind turbine jackets when submitted to an impact. [less ▲]

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See detailNitrous oxide fluxes by croplands: Towards a better understanding of emission mechanisms and dynamics
Lognoul, Margaux ULg; Broux, François ULg; SALERNO, Giovanni ULg

Poster (2015, December 10)

Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that can be emitted by crops. Our poster summarizes the emission mechanisms and implied variables and presents preliminary results obtained with eddy covariance on winter ... [more ▼]

Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that can be emitted by crops. Our poster summarizes the emission mechanisms and implied variables and presents preliminary results obtained with eddy covariance on winter wheat and automated dynamic closed chambers on maize. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of shoreline changes on population in Cotonou, Benin
de Longueville, Florence; Hountondji, Yvon Carmen; Gemenne, François ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 10)

The coast of Cotonou (Benin) is affected by an intensive coastal erosion for several decades, mainly due to unsuitable port infrastructures and human activities. In the future, the process will very ... [more ▼]

The coast of Cotonou (Benin) is affected by an intensive coastal erosion for several decades, mainly due to unsuitable port infrastructures and human activities. In the future, the process will very likely be worsen by sea level rise as a consequence of global warming. In this study, we use a combination of very high resolution satellite images from Google Earth recorded in 2002, 2011, 2013 and 2014 and carry out field missions in September 2012, September 2013, July 2014 and February 2015 to assess the retreat of the coastline and to understand the dynamic of population in the risk area. Multi-temporal analyses of satellite images show that nearly 93 hectares of land (including 40 hectares off) were progressively eroded by the sea between 2002 and 2014 on the stretch of the first eight kilometers at the east of the Safiato groyne. This corresponds to an average coastline’s retreat of 115 meters in 13 years, with variations from 38 to 145 meters, depending on the location. Thanks to the comparison between the images of 2002 and 2014, we assess that around 765 houses disappeared by the encroachment of the sea over the distance of 8 km to the East of the Safiato groyne, of which 60 villas and about 705 makeshift houses (informal settlements). Well-off population leave the risk area when their houses are threatened and go inland, fishermen prefer to stay in the risk area to be close to their activities and precarious population have no financial and social capitals to migrate, they are trapped in the risk area. Other precarious population coming from somewhere else settle in the coastal area and grow the at-risk population. The use of intermediate images and the results of field works confirm a rapid process of settlement/destruction of makeshift houses in the coastal area. Poor people carry out simply short displacements in the risk area. There is an urgent need to secure these populations. Update and respect of urban planning regulations, good governance, cooperation with other countries and involvement of local communities are all factors that are expected to reach this objective. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of new delivery systems for therapeutic proteins based on calcium carbonate microspheres
Ramalapa, Bathabile ULg; Crasson, Oscar ULg; Vandevenne, Marylène ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 10)

There exists a constant need for delivery systems that are biocompatible, offer bioactives protection from premature degradation and allow for targeted delivery and controlled release. Calcium carbonate ... [more ▼]

There exists a constant need for delivery systems that are biocompatible, offer bioactives protection from premature degradation and allow for targeted delivery and controlled release. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is one such system that has gained great favour for employment in the biomedical field due to possibilities of controlling size, morphology and crystalline forms of particles by tuning the synthesis conditions. CaCO3 has demonstrated ability to increase safety, stability and overall efficiency of protein therapeutics. The aim of the present work was to assess the significance of polysaccharide-protein complexes in enhancing the encapsulation of proteins in CaCO3 microspheres. A Chitin Binding Domain (ChBD), reported to have affinity for hyaluronic acid, was inserted on β-lactamase enzyme to develop a chimeric protein. The chimeric protein retained the activity of the enzyme and the binding properties and was encapsulated in CaCO3 microspheres by a super critical CO2 (ScCO2) process using hyaluronic acid as a templating agent. The particles were characterised in terms of size, zeta potential, morphology and protein loading. The results obtained confirmed the affinity of the ChBD to hyaluronic acid towards the production of stable, vaterite microparticles. Protein assays demonstrated that the ChBD enhanced the encapsulation of protein by up to 10 fold. Confocal images also suggested high encapsulation of the chimeric protein compared to native protein. Thus the production of polysaccharide-protein complexes seems effective in enhancing the encapsulation of proteins in CaCO3 microparticles using the ScCO2 process. Moreover this method will further be used to enhance encapsulation of therapeutic proteins such as growth factors for bone and cartilage regeneration. [less ▲]

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See detailCarte des risques de la baie de Tipaza (Algérie)
Nouri, Myriem ULg; Ozer, André ULg

Poster (2015, December 10)

Le littoral algérien a toujours été un territoire propice à l’établissement humain. En l’espace de 45 années, il a subi une urbanisation intense qui a développé une vulnérabilité multiple face aux ... [more ▼]

Le littoral algérien a toujours été un territoire propice à l’établissement humain. En l’espace de 45 années, il a subi une urbanisation intense qui a développé une vulnérabilité multiple face aux phénomènes naturels extrêmes. La zone d’étude, appelée dans ce travail « Baie de Tipaza », est l’un des espaces littoraux les plus évolutifs de l’aire métropolitaine d’Alger. Cette évolution lui a valu le titre de zone à très haute vulnérabilité dans l’espace algérien en termes de catastrophes naturelles. L’étude effectuée est une étude rétrospective, multiple et de constat. Son objectif est de présenter une carte des risques côtiers majeurs dans la zone-type. Les critères de jugement se basent sur des faits enregistrés et datés avec une étude géolocalisée grâce à des outils de télédétection et de système d’information géographique (SIG). Nous avons identifié trois (03) risques majeurs exerçant leur impact sur le territoire en étude : le risque sismique, les inondations et l’érosion du littoral. L’aléa sismique reste le plus dommageable car notre zone d’étude appartient au grand système actif de failles délimitant les plaques africaine et eurasiatique. Les séismes au large peuvent aussi causer des tsunamis. En ce qui concerne les inondations, l’irrégularité des pluies et leur soudaineté engendrent un caractère torrentiel au réseau hydrologique par des inondations de type « flash flood ». Quant à l’évolution littorale, la côte de Tipaza est globalement en recul permanent avec des variations entre -1.00 et - 2.70 m/an. Ces trois phénomènes exercent leur action sur un terrain de plus en plus urbanisé à très forte densité où 1.8% de la population algérienne est établie, avec un taux d’accroissement entre 1998 et 2008 de 2.1%. Cette pression démographique très importante se matérialise à travers des extensions urbaines non contrôlées et une évolution dirigée vers le littoral. La comparaison entre les images CORONA de 1967 et WORLDVIEW de 2010 montre une densification intense et continue de cette partie du littoral. Les résultats cités en amont, nous montrent l’ampleur de la vulnérabilité de la baie. Le risque sismique est permanent, il exerce un impact direct sur les constructions et induit des dégâts matériels et sociaux immédiats d’où la classification du site en « Zone III ». Les inondations se sont souvent produites suite à des événements ordinaires et saisonniers n’ayant rien de remarquables, mais accentuées essentiellement par l’urbanisation anarchique qui favorise une perméabilisation non contrôlée des sols, par la défaillance des réseaux d’assainissement et le gonflement des oueds dû à l’accumulation de décombres et de détritus surtout à leurs embouchures. Quant à l’érosion de la bande littorale, elle est causée par l’interruption du transit sédimentaire causée à l’amont par la présence de barrages qui bloquent les alluvions et par une surexploitation locale des sédiments de plages pour l’industrie du bâtiment. En outre, une urbanisation trop proche de la côte perturbe l’équilibre fragile du littoral. Ce travail limité à la baie de Tipaza a pour but de cartographier les données disponibles, il fait partie d’une étude de vulnérabilité de la zone urbanisée ou à urbanisation future de la bande côtière algérienne. Cette carte des risques permettra d’émettre des recommandations et des plans de gestion et sera un outil d’aide à la décision. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution récente du trait de côte dans le Golfe de Guinée: Exemple du Togo et du Bénin (2000-2015)
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Hountondji, Yvon-Carmen; de Longueville, Florence

Poster (2015, December 10)

L’interface terre-mer est un environnement extrêmement fragile. De par le monde, les littoraux sont menacés par une multitude de facteurs parfois naturels et le plus souvent anthropiques. Ainsi, aux ... [more ▼]

L’interface terre-mer est un environnement extrêmement fragile. De par le monde, les littoraux sont menacés par une multitude de facteurs parfois naturels et le plus souvent anthropiques. Ainsi, aux perturbations occasionnées aux zones côtières par les infrastructures portuaires, les barrages, les prélèvements de sédiments à même la plage ou encore l’extension urbaine, s’ajoutent les conséquences des changements climatiques, dont l’élévation du niveau des océans. Nous proposons dans cet article d’évaluer la récente évolution du trait de côte au Togo et au Bénin où plusieurs études localisées démontrent que les plages sableuses connaissent des modifications (accumulation ou érosion) majeures ces dernières décennies. Dans le but d’avoir une vision globale de la dynamique côtière sur les 152 kilomètres de plages de ces deux pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest, nous utilisons les images à haute définition spatiale disponibles en open access sur Google Earth. Dans cette étude exploratoire, nous analysons le trait de côte par sections de 1 kilomètre entre 2002 et 2015 en estimant systématiquement l’évolution moyenne en mètre par an. Globalement, il appert que si certaines sections connaissent une accumulation, c’est uniquement dû au fait que celles-ci se trouvent en amont d’un obstacle majeur, comme la jetée d’un port. Les sections relativement stables sont uniquement liées à la présence de mesures de protection, comme des épis. Partout ailleurs, les littoraux subissent un processus érosif pouvant être impressionnant avec des reculs moyens pouvant dépasser les 10 mètres par an. [less ▲]

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See detailLa traduction de l’humour dans la poésie orale peule du Cameroun
Oumarou Mal Mazou, Rachid ULg

Poster (2015, December 09)

Le poster présente le projet de thèse en cours de finalisation à l'Université de Liège

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See detailOn the LZ distance for dereplicating redundant prokaryotic genomes
Léonard, Raphaël ULg; Baurain, Denis ULg; Kerff, Frédéric ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 07)

The fast-growing number of available prokaryotic genomes, along with their uneven taxonomic distribution, is a prob- lem when trying to assemble broadly sampled genome sets for phylogenomics and ... [more ▼]

The fast-growing number of available prokaryotic genomes, along with their uneven taxonomic distribution, is a prob- lem when trying to assemble broadly sampled genome sets for phylogenomics and comparative genomics. Indeed, most of the new genomes belong to the same subset of hyper-sampled phyla, such as Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, or even to single species, such as Escherichia coli (almost 2000 genomes as of Sept 2015), while the continuous flow of newly discovered phyla prompts for regular updates. This situation makes it difficult to maintain sets of representative genomes combining lesser known phyla, for which only few species are available, and sound subsets of highly abundant phyla. An automated straightforward method is required but none are publicly available. The LZ distance, in conjunction with the quality of the annotations, can be used to create an automated approach for selecting a subset of represen- tative genomes without redundancy. We are planning to release this tool on a website that will be made publicly available. [less ▲]

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See detailCompensatory Metabolism Promotes Cancer Cell Adaptation to HDAC5 Silencing
Hendrick, Elodie ULg; Peixoto, Paul; Polese, Catherine et al

Poster (2015, December 03)

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See detailFunctional characterization of FRD3,  a citrate transporter, in Arabidopsis relatives
Scheepers, Maxime ULg; Charlier, Jean-Benoit; Spielmann, Julien ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 03)

Transcriptomic studies identified genes which are constitutively over-expressed in A. halleri compared to A. thaliana and which may have a role in metal tolerance or accumulation (1-3). A candidate gene ... [more ▼]

Transcriptomic studies identified genes which are constitutively over-expressed in A. halleri compared to A. thaliana and which may have a role in metal tolerance or accumulation (1-3). A candidate gene encodes FRD3, a member of the MATE family of membrane transporters (56 members in A. thaliana). It is a citrate transporter involved in iron homeostasis (4-6) and playing a role in zinc tolerance in A. thaliana (7). We are aiming to analyse the FRD3 high expression in A. halleri and the FRD3 function in zinc and iron homeostasis in A. thaliana. [less ▲]

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See detailVariability in almond oil chemical traits from traditional cultivars from eastern Morocco
Houmy, Nadia; Belhaj, K.; Abid, M. et al

Poster (2015, December 03)

In Morocco, cultivation of almond tree (Prunus amygdalus L.) constitutes the second most important plantation of fruit trees after olive growing. It is mostly cultivated in two regions, « Taza, Al ... [more ▼]

In Morocco, cultivation of almond tree (Prunus amygdalus L.) constitutes the second most important plantation of fruit trees after olive growing. It is mostly cultivated in two regions, « Taza, Al Houceima Taounate » in the north and « Souss Massa Draa » in the south. Almond genetic resources (Marcoma, Fournat, Ferragnes/Ferraduel and Beldi), cultivated in eastern Morocco were studied during two consecutive crop years in order to evaluate variations in kernel oil yield, fatty acid profiles, oleic /linoleic (O/L) ratio and almond oils oxydative stability (OSI,evaluated by rancimat tests) in comparison to monovarietal olive oils. Almond kernel total oil (AO), Oleic acid (C18:1), Linoleic acid (C18:2), O/L-ratio, and tocopherol contents range between: 48 - 62% for kernel total oil; 65- 77.5% for C18:1; 17- 25% for C18:2; 2.5-4 for O/L ratio and 370 - 675 μg/g oil for tocopherols, respectively. We conclude that the genotype is the main variability source for all these chemical traits of AOs. Results obtained from Ferragnes/Ferraduel may be of interest for almond breeding focused to improve kernel oil yield and fatty acid profile. Besides, tocopherols contents of AOs seem to be the most important contributor for their stability to oxidation, even though compared to monovarietal olive oils, stability of AOs were very low and OSI value range between 20-27 hours. This fragility of AOs is due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acid which not allows their use for cooking or storage for long period. However, almond oils could have many applications in the food industry as in cosmetic [less ▲]

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See detailHuman Adult Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue Harbor Stem Cells with Neural Crest Characteristics.
Coste, Cécile ULg; Neirinckx, Virginie; Rogister, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 03)

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